Pain Research and Management / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

Table 1

Final list of pain behaviors extracted from pediatric observational pain scales that loaded on factor 1, which we labeled as the “Controlled” factor.

Pain behaviorFactor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4

Taking medication when he/she normally refuses
Seeking physical comfort or closeness
Pulling head away
Lying very still
Screaming
Shifting torso
Making aggressive physical contact
Resisting being moved
Cursing
Raising voice
Asking for help
Complaining of pain
Self-harming
Angry verbalizations
Whining
Quiet
Kicking
Resistant