Pain Research and Management / 2017 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

Table 2

Final list of pain behaviors extracted from pediatric observational pain scales that loaded on factor 2, which we labeled as the “Automatic” factor.

Pain behaviorFactor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4

Socially withdrawn
Wincing
Deepening of nasolabial furrow
Whimpering
Flailing arms and legs
Grimacing
Hard to console or comfort
Watery eyes
Tensing up
Restless
Squeezing eyes
Grinding teeth
Widening eyes
Hyper alert
Irregular, indrawn breathing
Crying
Tears running down face
Squinting
Moaning
Shivering torso
Looking pale
Gasping
Has disturbed sleep