Pain Research and Management / 2017 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

Table 3

Final list of pain behaviors extracted from pediatric observational pain scales that loaded on factor 3 and/or factor 4, loaded on two or more factors, or did not load on any factors. This factor was labeled as the “Ambiguous” factor.

Pain behaviorFactor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4

Reduction of activity
Puckering
Rear up body of the trunk/sit up
Jerking
Furrowing brow
Opening mouth
Eating less than usual
Flexion or tightening of toes
Localizing pain
Arching back
Thrusting tongue out
Rubbing
Grunting
Chewing
Looking more flushed than normal
Irritable
Corners of mouth downward
Eyes almost closed
Being difficult to distract
Playing less than usual
Drawn up with arms and legs to the body
Flexion or tightening of fingers
Clenching jaw
Protecting/favoring/guarding part of body that hurts
Squirming