Pain Research and Management / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update

Table 1

Characteristics and management of trigeminal neuralgia in the maxillofacial region.

DiseasesClinical featuresPharmacological treatmentsSide effectsSurgical /local treatmentsLimitation

Trigeminal neuralgiaPain, electric shock like
Pain duration, seconds
Intensity, severe
Localization, good
Characteristics, trigger zone, diurnal
Trigger points, nonnoxious stimulus
Carbamazepine(i) Development of resistance and intolerance
(ii) Dizziness
(iii) Nausea
(iv) Ataxia
(v) Vomiting
(vi) Xerostomia
Percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy(i) Recurrence of pain
(ii) Dysesthesia (troublesome numbness)
(iii) Loss of corneal reflex
Oxcarbazepine(i) Dizziness
(ii) Fatigue
(iii) Nausea
(iv) Vomiting
(v) Headache
(vi) Acne
(vii) Dry mouth
(viii) Constipation
Ablative peripheral procedures (neurectomy)(i) Less morbidity but with chance of recurrence
Gabapentin(i) Dizziness
(ii) Fatigue
(iii) weight gain
(iv) Drowsiness
(v) peripheral edema
Microvascular decompression (i) Low recurrence of pain
(ii) Chance of causing nerve damage
(iii) Haring loss, double vision, facial numbness, or paralysis
Pregabalin(i) Dizziness
(ii) Blurred vision
(iii) Diplopia
(iv) Increased appetite and subsequent weight gain
(v) Euphoria, confusion, and vivid dreams
(vi) Changes in libido (increase or decrease)
(vii) Memory impairment
(viii) Tremors
(ix) Dry mouth
(x) Erectile dysfunction
(xi) Peripheral edema
(xii) Nasopharyngitis
(xiii) Increased creatinine kinase level
Topiramate(i) Paresthesia
(ii) Nausea
(iii) Lack of concentration
(iv) Diplopia
(v) Nervousness and dizziness
(vi) Memory impairment
(vii) Speech disturbance
(viii) Disturbance
(ix) Diarrhea
Gamma knife radiosurgery(i) Tenderness develops where the screws or pins were placed
(ii) Hair loss where the radiation was directed
(iii) Damage to surrounding tissues in the brain, caused by swelling
Trigeminal neuralgiaPain, electric shock like
Pain duration, seconds
Intensity, severe
Localization, good
Characteristics, trigger zone, diurnal
Trigger points, nonnoxious stimulus
Valproates(i) Skin rash
(ii) Hair loss
(iii) Weight gain
Myotherapy(i) Regular monitoring is not possible
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)(i) Sedation
(ii) Dry mouth
(iii) Blurred vision
(iv) Breast enlargement in males
(v) Constipation, mania
(vi) Weight gain
(vii) High blood glucose level
Injections(i) As it is a painful procedure, the patient feels uncomfortable during injection
Sedatives
(on condition)
(i) Apnea
(ii) Physical dependence
(iii) Decreased mean arterial pressure
(iv) Tachycardia
(v) Paradoxical excitement
Acupuncture(i) Painful procedure
Therapeutic ultrasound (i) A skilled person is needed, and the patient is still under observation

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.