Table 1: General information and modified Jadad score in the included trials.

StudyResearch locationnTreatment designAspect evaluatedEvaluations/follow-upEvaluation methodsModified Jadad score

Conti [17]Brazil20Laser (10) versus placebo (10)PI, mandibular functionAfter each treatmentVAS, MO, LE, PE5
Kulekcioglu [49]Turkey35Laser (20) versus placebo (15)PI, mandibular function, joint sounds,Before, after, and 1 month after treatmentVAS, MO, LE, auscultation5
Venancio [19]Brazil30Laser (15) versus placebo (15)PI, mandibular function, pain sensitivityImmediately before the first, third, and fifth treatment sessions, and at the follow-up appointments after 15, 30, and 60 days of the end of treatmentVAS, MO, LE, PE, PPT5
Mazzetto [41]Brazil48Laser (24) versus placebo (24)PIBefore treatment, after the 4th and 8th applications, and 30 d after the last application.VAS6
Cunha [42]Brazil40Laser (20) versus placebo (20)PI, TMD statusBefore treatment and after the last treatmentVAS, DI, CMI, palpation index5
Carrasco [1]Brazil14Laser (7) versus placebo (7)PI, masticatory efficiencyBefore treatment, after the 8th application, 30 days after the last applicationVAS, colorimetric capsule method5
Emshoff [18]Austria52Laser (26) versus placebo (26)PIBefore treatment and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the first laser therapyVAS7
Lassemi [50]Iran48Laser (26) versus placebo (22)PI, joint soundsBefore treatment, immediately, 2 and 4 days after treatmentVAS, stethoscope3
Carrasco [43]Brazil60Laser (30, 3 parameter groups, 10 in each group) versus placebo (30)PIBefore treatment, after the 4th and 8th applications, 15 days and 1 month after the last applicationVAS5
Shirani [53]Iran16Laser (the combination of two wavelengths, 8) versus placebo (8)PIBefore and immediately after treatment, 1 week after treatment, and on the day of feeling complete pain reliefVAS6
Marini [20]Italy99Laser (39) versus ibuprofen versus (30) placebo (30)PI, mandibular function, morphologic structural analysis of TMJPI at baseline, 2, 5, 10, and 15 days after treatment. Mandibular function at baseline, 15 days and 1 month after treatment. MRI at baseline and at the end of the treatment.VAS, MO, LE, MRI6
Sattayut [35]England30Low energy laser (10) versus high energy laser (10) versus placebo (10)PI, pain sensitivity, mandibular movements, EMG activityBaseline and 1, 3, 5, and 8 days after treatmentVAS, PPT, EMG, McGill pain questionnaire6
Silva [36]Brazil45Low energy laser (15) versus high energy laser (15) versus placebo (15)PI, madibular movementsBefore treatment, immediately after the first, fifth, tenth treatments, and 5 weeks after completing the applicationsVAS, MO, LE, PE6
Ferreira [16]Brazil40Laser (20) versus placebo (20)PIBefore intervention, monthly until intervention completedVAS7
Ahrari [44]Iran20Laser (10) versus placebo (10)PI, madibular movementsBefore intervention, after six applications, at the end of treatment, and 1 month after the last applicationVAS, MO6
Demirkol [54]Turkey30Laser (10) versus occlusal splint (10) versus placebo (10)PIBefore treatment, immediately and 3 weeks after treatmentVAS4
Röhlig [51]Turkey40Laser (20) versus placebo (20)PI, functional examination, pain sensitivityBefore treatment and after the last applicationsVAS, MO, LE, PE, PPT8
Wang [21]China42Laser (21) versus placebo (21)PI, functional examinationBefore treatment, immediately, 1 month and 2 months after treatmentVAS, MO, LE, PE5
Carli [28]Brazil32Laser + piroxicam (11) versus laser + placebo piroxicam (11) versus placebo laser + piroxicam (10)PI, functional examinationBefore treatment, after the first, second, third, and fourth treatment sessions, and 30 days after last treatment.VAS, MO8
Fornaini [31]Italy24Laser (12) versus placebo (12)PIBefore treatment, 1 and 2 weeks after treatmentVAS5
Sancakli [30]Turkey30Laser I (10) versus laser II (10) versus placebo (10)PI, mandibular mobility, pain sensitivityBefore treatment and after the completion of therapyVAS, MO, LE, PE, PPT7
Frare [52]Brazil18Laser (10) versus placebo (8)PIBefore and immediately after all sessions of laser applicationsVAS4
Venezian [45]Brazil48(1): Laser I (12) versus placebo I (12)PI, EMG activityPI: before treatment, immediately and 30 days after treatmentVAS, EMG6
(2): Laser II (12) versus placebo II (12)EMG: before and immediately after treatment
Mazzetto [46]Brazil40Laser (20) versus placebo (20)PI, mandibular movementsBefore treatment, immediately, 7 and 30 days after applicationsVAS, MO, LE4
Uemoto [55]Brazil21Laser (7) versus needling group (7) versus placebo (7)PI, EMG activity, pain sensitivity, madibular movementsBefore treatment, after four sessions with intervals ranging between 48 and 72 hVAS, EMG, PPT, MO4
Madani [56]Iran20Laser (10) versus placebo (10)PI, madibular movements, joint soundsBefore treatment, after 6 and 12 applications and 1 month after last applicationVAS, MO, perceiving joint sounds by the fingertips6
Maia [29]Brazil21Laser (12) versus placebo (9)PI, masticatory performance, pain sensitivityMP and PPT, before treatment, at the end of treatment and 30 days after treatmentVAS, optical test material, PPT5
VAS, at the same time as above and was also measured weekly
Cavalcanti [47]Brazil60Laser (20) versus PDP (20) versus placebo (20)Presence or absence of painBefore treatment, at each week till the fourth week after treatmentMuscle tenderness palpation and the questionnaire of fonseca4
Magri [48]Brazil91Laser (31) versus placebo (30) versus control (30)PI, pain sensitivity, the sensory and affective dimensions of painBefore treatment, after each treatment and 30 days after last treatmentVAS, PPT, SF-MPQ7
Demirkol [4]Turkey46Nd:YAG laser (15) versus diode laser (16) versus placebo (15)The severity of the tinnitusBefore treatment, immediately and 1 month after treatmentVAS4
Machado [40]Brazil82GI: laser + OM exercises (21) versus GII: pain relief strategies + OM exercises (22) versus GIII laser placebo + OM exercises (21) versus GIV: laser (18)PI, TMD severity, and orofacial myofunctional statusBefore treatment, immediately and 3 months after last treatmentProTMDmulti-part II questionnaire, orofacial myofunctional evaluation with scores5

CMI: craniomandibular index; DI: dysfunction index; EMG: electromyography; LE:_lateral excursion; ME: masticatory efficiency; MO: mouth opening; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; n: number; OM: oral motor; PDP: physiotherapeutic and drug protocol; PE: protrusion excursion; PI: pain intensity; PPT: pressure pain threshold; SF-MPQ: short form McGill Pain Questionnaire; TMD:_temporomandibular disorder; TMJ:_temporomandibular joint; VAS: visual analogue scale.