Table 2: Parameters of LLLT and outcomes in the included trials.

StudyLaser typeTreatment time/number of total sessions/number of sessions week−1Application sitesPowerDosage (J/cm2)Outcome

Conti [17]GaAIAs 830 nm40 s/3/1TMJ and/or muscles79 mW4LLLT = placebo
Kulekcioglu [49]GaAs 904 nm180 s/15/–TMJ and/or muscles17 mW3LLLT > placebo (MO, LM)
LLLT = placebo (PI, TMJ sounds)
Venancio [19]GaAlAs 780 nm10 s/6/2TMJ30 mW6.3LLLT = placebo
Mazzetto [41]GaAIAs 780 nm10 s/8/2TMJ (external auditory meatus)70 mW89.7LLLT > placebo
Cunha [43]GaAlAs 830 nm20 s/4/1TMJ and/or muscles500 mW100LLLT = placebo
Carrasco [1]GaAlAs 780 nm60 s/8/2TMJ70 mW105LLLT > placebo (PI on palpation) LLLT = placebo (ME: masticatory efficiency)
Emshoff [18]HeNe 632.8 nm120 s/20/2-3TMJ30 mW1.5LLLT = placebo
Lassemi [50]GaAs 980 nm60 s/2/2TMJ and musclesNANALLLT > placebo
Carrasco [43]GaAlAs 780 nm60 s/8/2Muscles50/60/70 mW25/60/105LLLT = placebo
Shirani [53]InGaAlP 660 nm and GaAs 890 nm360 s/6/2Muscles17.3 mW and 1.76 mW6.2 and 1.0LLLT > placebo
600 s/6/2
Marini [20]GaAIAs 910 nm20 min/10/5TMJ400 mWNALLLT > placebo
Sattayut [35]GaAIAs 820 nm–/3/–TMJ and/or muscles60 mW or 300 mW21.4 or 107LLLT > placebo (high energy)
LLLT = placebo (low energy)
Silva [36]GaAIAs 780 nm30 s or 60 s/10/2TMJ and/or muscles70 mW52.5 or 105.0LLLT > placebo
Ferreira [16]GaAIAs 780 nm90 s/12/1TMJ and muscles50 mW112.5LLLT > placebo
Ahrari [44]GaAIAs 810 nm120 s/12/3Muscles50 mW3.4LLLT > placebo
Demirkol [54]Nd:YAG 1064 nm20 s/10/5Muscle250 mW8LLLT > placebo
Röhlig [51]GaAs 820 nm10 s/10/3-4Muscle300 mW8LLLT > placebo
Wang [21]GaAIAs 650 nm/830 nm15 min/6/6TMJ300 mWNALLLT > placebo
Carli [28]GaAlAs 830 nm28 s/4/2TMJ and muscles100 mW100LLLT = placebo
Fornaini [31]GaAlAs 808 nm15 min/14/7TMJ250 mWNALLLT > placebo
Sancakli [30]GaAs 820 nm10 s/12/3Muscle300 mW3LLLT > placebo
Frare [52]GaAs 904 nm16 s/8/2TMJ and external auditory meatus15 mW6LLLT > placebo
Venezian [45]GaAIAs 780 nm20 or 40 s/8/2Muscles50/60 mW25 or 60LLLT = placebo
Mazzetto [46]GaAlAs 830 nm10 s/8/2TMJ40 mW5LLLT > placebo
Uemoto [55]Laser type NA, 795 nm–/4/–Muscle80 mW4 or 8LLLT > placebo (only 4 J/cm2)
Madani [56]Laser type NA, 810 nm120 s/12/3TMJ and muscles50 mW3.4LLLT = placebo
Maia [29]GaAlAs 808 nm19 s/8/2Muscle100 mW70LLLT > placebo
Cavalcanti [47]GaAlAs780  nm20 s/12/3TMJ and muscles70 mW35.0LLLT > placebo
Magri [48]GaAlAs 780 nm10 s/8/2TMJ and musclesTMJ, 20 mW; muscle, 30 mW5 or 7.5LLLT = placebo
Demirkol [4]Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), diode laser (810 nm)20 s or 9 s/10/5External auditory meatus250 mW8LLLT > placebo
Machado [40]GaAlAs 780 nm45 min/12/1–0.5TMJ and muscles60 mW60 ± 1.0LLLT = placebo

GaAlAs: gallium-aluminium-arsenide laser; Ga-Ar: gallium argon; GaAs: gallium-arsenide laser; HeNe: helium-neon laser; InGaAlP: indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide laser; LLLT: low-level laser therapy; NA: not available; Nd:YAG: neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; TMJ: temporomandibular joint.