Table 2: Theoretical categories, substantive categories, and referenced articles; 77 articles reviewed.

Theoretical categorySubstantive categoryReferences

Gendered norms about men and women with painStoic menFillingim et al. [2], Hurley and Adams [5], Bernardes et al. [6], Barsky et al. [8], Keogh [9], Racine et al. [10], Hoffmann and Tarzian [13], Myers et al. [14], Robinson et al. [16], Robinson et al. [41], Clarke and Bennett [43], Hale et al. [44], O’brien et al. [45], Ahlsen et al. [46], Dao and Leresche [47], Lack et al. [48], Côté and Coutu [49], Bernardes and Lima [50], Smitherman and Ward [51], Pool et al. [52], Jarrett [53], Nielsen et al. [54], Solimeo [55], Solimeo et al. [56], Ahlsen et al. [57], Kvam et al. [58], Paulson et al. [59], Ahlsen et al. [60]
Sensitive women—in comparisonFillingim et al. [2], Hurley and Adams [5], Bernardes et al. [6], Barsky et al. [8], Keogh [9], Racine et al. [10], Hoffmann and Tarzian [13], Myers et al. [14], Robinson et al. [16], Leresche [25], Robinson and Wise [26], Robinson et al. [41], Dao and Leresche [47], Smitherman and Ward [51], Jarrett [53], Robinson et al. [61], Martel et al. [62], Martel et al. [63], Robinson and Wise [64], Stutts et al. [65], Hobara [66], Stenberg et al. [67], Bernardes et al. [68]
Hysterical womenBarsky et al. [8], Hoffmann and Tarzian [13], Hamberg et al. [22], Dao and Leresche [47], Côté and Coutu [49], Katz et al. [69], Grace [70], Barker [71], Werner et al. [72], Hayes et al. [73], Lillrank [74], Werner et al. [75], LaChapelle et al. [76], Bernardes and Lima [77], Werner and Malterud [78], Damsgård et al. [79]
Inexplicable—unfitBernardes et al. [6], Barsky et al. [8], Hoffmann and Tarzian [13], Hamberg et al. [22], Côté and Coutu [49], Jarrett [53], Katz et al. [69], Grace [70], Barker [71], Werner et al. [72], Hayes et al. [73], Lillrank [74], Werner et al. [75], LaChapelle et al. [76], Bernardes and Lima [77], Werner and Malterud [78], Pujal and Mora [80], Skuladottir and Halldorsdottir [81], Tait et al. [82], Frantsve and Kerns [83], Bernardes et al. [84]

Gendered norms about how men and women cope with painMen’s gender identity in jeopardyClarke and Bennett [43], O’brien et al. [45], Ahlsen et al. [46], Lack et al. [48], Côté and Coutu [49], Bernardes and Lima [50], Nielsen et al. [54], Solimeo [55], Solimeo et al. [56], Ahlsen et al. [57], Kvam et al. [58], Paulson et al. [59], Ahlsen et al. [60], Madsen et al. [85]
The strong bodyHoffmann and Tarzian [13], Clarke and Bennett [43], Ahlsen et al. [46], Lack et al. [48], Côté and Coutu [49], Nielsen et al. [54], Solimeo et al. [56], Ahlsen et al. [57], Kvam et al. [58], Paulson et al. [59], Ahlsen et al. [60], Damsgård et al. [79], Madsen et al. [85]
Men’s approach—this is not meAhlsen et al. [46], Lack et al. [48], Nielsen et al. [54], Solimeo [55], Solimeo et al. [56], Ahlsen et al. [57], Ahlsen et al. [60], Bernardes et al. [68], Racine et al. [86]
The female patchworkHoffmann and Tarzian [13], Hamberg et al. [22], Clarke and Bennett [43], Dao and Leresche [47], Côté and Coutu [49], Smitherman and Ward [51], Ahlsen et al. [57], Kvam et al. [58], Barker [71], Werner et al. [72], Werner et al. [75], LaChapelle et al. [76], Damsgård et al. [79], Pujal and Mora [80], Skuladottir and Halldorsdottir [81], Gustafsson et al. [87], Boonstra et al. [88], Sheffer et al. [89]
Women’s approach—I have to learnFillingim et al. [2], Keogh [9], Racine et al. [10], Hoffmann and Tarzian [13], Myers et al. [14], Leresche [25], Clarke and Bennett [43], Dao and Leresche [47], Côté and Coutu [49], Smitherman and Ward [51], Ahlsen et al. [57], Kvam et al. [58], Stutts et al. [65], Werner et al. [72], Werner et al. [75], LaChapelle et al. [76], Damsgård et al. [79], Pujal and Mora [80], Skuladottir and Halldorsdottir [81], Gustafsson et al. [87], McClelland and McCubbin [90], Keogh and Herdenfeldt [91]

Gender bias in the treatment of painStruggle for legitimacyAhlsen et al. [57], Werner et al. [72], Hayes et al. [73], Lillrank [74], Werner et al. [75], Werner and Malterud [78], Skuladottir and Halldorsdottir [81], Tait et al. [82], Gustafsson et al. [87]
How do I look? (appearances)Fillingim et al. [2], Hurley and Adams [5], Bernardes et al. [6], Barsky et al. [8], Keogh [9], Racine et al. [10], Hoffmann and Tarzian [13], Myers et al. [14], Alabas et al. [15], Côté and Coutu [49], Smitherman and Ward [51], Jarrett [53], Werner et al. [75], Werner and Malterud [78], Tait et al. [82], Frantsve and Kerns [83], Gijsbers and Nicholson [92], Kállai et al. [93], Aslaksen et al. [94]
Differences in medicationFillingim et al. [2], Hoffmann and Tarzian [13], Hamberg et al. [22], Tait et al. [82], Bernardes et al. [84], Racine et al. [86], Lord et al. [95], Green et al. [96], Hirsh et al. [97], Fillingim et al. [98], Chen et al. [99], Michael et al. [100], Hirsh et al. [101], Weisse et al. [102], Criste [103], Weisse et al. [104], Marquié et al. [105]