Pain Research and Management / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Clinical Study

A Comparative Study between Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Fentanyl to Relieve Shoulder Pain during Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery under Spinal Anesthesia: A Randomized Clinical Trail

Table 2

Comparing pain score in TENS and fentanyl groups as measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS).

TENS (n = 40)Fentanyl (n = 40)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)95% CI of the difference

Pretreatment Pain9.02 (1.32)8.95 (1.33)−0.51 to 0.660.80
Posttreatment pain (5 minutes)7.62 (2.33)5.52 (2.18)1.09 to 3.10<0.001
Posttreatment pain (10 minutes)3.92 (2.53)3.55 (2.18)−0.67 to 1.420.48
Posttreatment pain (15 minutes)1.72 (2.11)2.60 (2.35)−1.86 to 0.110.08
Posttreatment pain (30 minutes)0.65 (0.89)1.50 (1.75)−1.46 to −0.230.008

Higher values indicate higher pain severity.

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