Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pain Research and Management
Volume 2019, Article ID 1874078, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1874078
Research Article

Personality and Personality Disorders in Medication-Overuse Headache: A Controlled Study by SWAP-200

1ASST SS. Paolo and Carlo, S. Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy
2Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
3Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
4Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
5Headache Science Center, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy
6Therapeutic Community “Villa Renata”, Venice, Italy
7Center for Individual and Couple Therapy, Genoa, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Annalisa Tanzilli; ti.1amorinu@illiznat.asilanna

Received 1 February 2019; Accepted 4 April 2019; Published 12 June 2019

Guest Editor: Athina Vadalouka

Copyright © 2019 Federica Galli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. T. Mathew, E. Stubits, and M. P. Nigam, “Transformation of episodic migraine into daily headache: analysis of factors,” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 66–68, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Headache classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS), “The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition (beta version),” Cephalalgia, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 629–808, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. N. N. Vandenbussche, D. Laterza, M. Lisicki et al., “Medication-overuse headache: a widely recognized entity amidst ongoing debate,” Journal of Headache and Pain, vol. 19, no. 1, p. 50, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. L. Westergaard, E. H. Hansen, C. Glümer, J. Olesen, and R. H. Jensen, “Definitions of medication-overuse headache in population-based studies and their implications on prevalence estimates: a systematic review,” Cephalalgia, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 409–425, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Rapoport, P. Stang, D. L. Gutterman et al., “Analgesic rebound headache in clinical practice: data from a physician survey,” Headache, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. E. Bigal, D. Serrano, D. Buse, A. Scher, W. F. Stewart, and R. B. Lipton, “Acute migraine medications and evolution from episodic to chronic migraine: a longitudinal population-based study,” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1157–1168, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Thorlund, C. Sun-Edelstein, E. Druyts et al., “Risk of medication overuse headache across classes of treatments for acute migraine,” Journal of Headache and Pain, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 107, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. V. Guidetti, F. Galli, and F. Sheftell, “Headache attributed to psychiatric disorders,” Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 97, pp. 657–662, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Galli, L. Patron, P. M. Russo, O. Bruni, L. F. Strambi, and V. Guidetti, “Chronic daily headache in childhood and adolescence: clinical aspects and a 4-year follow-up,” Cephalalgia, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 850–858, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Guidetti, F. Galli, P. Fabrizi et al., “Headache and psychiatric comorbidity: clinical aspects and outcome in an 8-year follow-up study,” Cephalalgia, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 455–462, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Sances, F. Galli, N. Ghiotto et al., “Factors associated with a negative outcome of medication-overuse headache: a 3-year follow-up (the ‘CARE’ protocol),” Cephalalgia, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 431–443, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Hagen, C. Albretsen, S. T. Vilming et al., “A 4-year follow-up of patients with medication-overuse headache previously included in a randomized multicentre study,” Journal of Headache and Pain, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 315–322, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. R. Merikangas, J. Angst, and H. Isler, “Migraine and psychopathology. results of the Zurich cohort study of young adults,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 849–853, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Galli, “Headache and anxiety/mood disorders: are we trapped in a cul-de-sac?” Journal of Headache and Pain, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. G. Wolf, “Personality features and reactions of subjects with migraine,” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 895–921, 1937. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. L. Dixon-Gordon, L. C. Conkey, and D. J. Whalen, “Recent advances in understanding physical health problems in personality disorders,” Current Opinion in Psychology, vol. 21, pp. 1–5, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Naylor, S. Boag, and S. M. Gustin, “New evidence for a pain personality? A critical review of the last 120 years of pain and personality,” Scandinavian Journal of Pain, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 58–67, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. R. Cloninger, The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Guide to its Development and Use, Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA, 1994.
  19. G. Abbate-Daga, S. Fassino, R. Lo Giudice et al., “Anger, depression and personality dimensions in patients with migraine without aura,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 122–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Boz, S. Gazioglu, V. Altunayoglu, and C. Hocaoglu, “Effect of serotonergic antidepressant therapy on temperament and character scales in patients with chronic tension-type headache,” Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 534–542, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P.-O. Nylander, P. Schlette, S. Brändström et al., “Migraine: temperament and character,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 359–368, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Sánchez-Román, J. F. Téllez-Zenteno, F. Zermeño-Phols et al., “Personality in patients with migraine evaluated with the “Temperament and Character Inventory”,” Journal of Headache and Pain, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 94–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Yang, I. A. M. Dos Santos, R. S. Gomez, A. Kummer, I. G. Barbosa, and A. L. Teixeira, “Personality disorders are associated with more severe forms of migraine,” Acta Neurologica Belgica, pp. 1–5, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. E. Bigal, F. D. Sheftell, A. M. Rapoport, S. J. Tepper, R. Weeks, and S. M. Baskin, “MMPI personality profiles in patients with primary chronic daily headache: a case-control study,” Neurological Sciences, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 103–110, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. N. Butcher, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, and B. Kaemmer, Manual for the restandardized Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI-2, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 1989.
  26. M. B. First, M. Gibbon, R. L. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, and L. S. Benjamin, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, (SCID-II), American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1997.
  27. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  28. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 5th edition, 2013.
  29. H. T. Atasoy, N. Atasoy, A. E. Unal, U. Emre, and M. Sumer, “Psychiatric comorbidity in medication overuse headache patients with pre-existing headache type of episodic tension-type headache,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 285, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. Kayhan and F. Ilik, “Prevalence of personality disorders in patients with chronic migraine,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 68, pp. 60–64, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. E. Quirk, A. L. Stuart, S. L. Brennan-Olsen et al., “Physical health comorbidities in women with personality disorder: data from the Geelong osteoporosis study,” European Psychiatry, vol. 34, pp. 29–35, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. L. Fuh, S. J. Wang, S. R. Lu, and K. D. Juang, “Does medication overuse headache represent a behavior of dependence?” Pain, vol. 119, no. 1–3, pp. 49–55, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. Radat, C. Creach, E. Guegan-Massardier et al., “Behavioral dependence in patients with medication overuse headache: a cross-sectional study in consulting patients using the DSM-IV criteria,” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1026–1036, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Cargnin, M. Viana, G. Sances, C. Tassorelli, and S. Terrazzino, “A systematic review and critical appraisal of gene polymorphism association studies in medication-overuse headache,” Cephalalgia, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1361–1373, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. H. Lai and S. J. Wang, “Neuroimaging findings in patients with medication overuse headache,” Current Pain and Headache Reports, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. D. Chong, T. J. Schwedt, and A. Hougaard, “Brain functional connectivity in headache disorders: a narrative review of MRI investigations,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 650–669, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Galli, G. Pozzi, A. Frustaci et al., “Differences in the personality profile of medication-overuse headache sufferers and drug addict patients: a comparative study using MMPI-2,” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1212–1227, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. W. Love and C. L. Peck, “The MMPI and psychological factors in chronic low back pain: a review,” Pain, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. F. Bornstein, “Behaviorally referenced experimentation and symptom validation: a paradigm for 21st-century personality disorder research,” Journal of Personality Disorders, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Westen and J. Shedler, “Revising and assessing axis II, part I: developing a clinically and empirically valid assessment method,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 258–272, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. D Westen and J Shedler, “Revising and assessing axis II, part II: Toward an empirically based and clinically useful classification of personality disorders,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 273–285, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  42. J. Shedler and D. Westen, “Refining personality disorder diagnosis: integrating science and practice,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 8, pp. 1350–1365, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Shedler and D. Westen, “The Shedler–Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP): making personality diagnosis clinically meaningful,” Journal of Personality Assessment, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 41–55, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Shedler, D. Westen, and V. Lingiardi, The Evaluation of Personality with the SWAP-200, Raffaello Cortina Publisher, Milan, Italy, 2014.
  45. J. Block, The Q–Sort Method in Personality Assessment and Psychiatric Research, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, USA, 1978.
  46. P. S. Blagov, W. Bi, J. Shedler, and D. Westen, “The Shedler-Westen assessment procedure (SWAP): evaluating psychometric questions about its reliability, validity, and impact of its fixed score distribution,” Assessment, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 370–382, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. Westen and J. Shedler, “Personality diagnosis with the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure (SWAP): integrating clinical and statistical measurement and prediction,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 810–822, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. Westen and S Muderrisoglu, “Clinical assessment of pathological personality traits,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 7, pp. 1285–1287, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. D. Westen and J. Weinberger, “When clinical description becomes statistical prediction,” American Psychologist, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 595–613, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. S. Kristoffersen and C. Lundqvist, “Medication-overuse headache: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment,” Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 87–99, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. G. Sances, F. Galli, S. Anastasi et al., “Medication-overuse headache and personality: a controlled study by means of the MMPI-2,” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 198–209, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Rothrock, I. Lopez, D. Zweilfer, D. Andress-Rothrock, R. Drinkard, and N. Walters, “Borderline personality disorder and migraine,” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. Campbell, R. Bruno, S. Darke, and L. Degenhardt, “Associations of borderline personality with pain, problems with medications and suicidality in a community sample of chronic non-cancer pain patients prescribed opioids for pain,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 434–440, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. P. Köck and M. Walter, “Personality disorder and substance use disorder—an update,” Mental Health & Prevention, vol. 12, pp. 82–89, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Calabresi and L. M. Cupini, “Medication-overuse headache: similarities with drug addiction,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 62–68, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Sarchielli, I. Corbelli, P. Messina et al., “Psychopathological comorbidities in medication-overuse headache: a multicentre clinical study,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Goldman, G. Oroszi, and F. Ducci, “The genetics of addictions: uncovering the genes,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 521–532, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. S. Kendler, X. Chen, D. Dick et al., “Recent advances in the genetic epidemiology and molecular genetics of substance use disorders,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 181–189, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E. J. Khantzian, “The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: a reconsideration and recent applications,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 231–244, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. F. A. Thorberg and M. Lyvers, “Attachment in relation to affect regulation and interpersonal functioning among substance use disorder in patients,” Addiction Research & Theory, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 464–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. F. Grant, T. D. Saha, W. J. Ruan et al., “Epidemiology of DSM-5 drug use disorder: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions–III,” Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. K. Jacobsen, S. M. Southwick, and T. R. Kosten, “Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 158, no. 8, pp. 1184–1190, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. M. X. Lai, M. Cleary, T. Sitharthan, and G. E. Hunt, “Prevalence of comorbid substance use, anxiety and mood disorders in epidemiological surveys, 1990–2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 154, pp. 1–13, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. J. Hilsenroth, M. Katz, and A. Tanzilli, “Psychotherapy research and the psychodynamic diagnostic manual (PDM-2),” Psychoanalytic Psychology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 320–327, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. Lingiardi and N. McWilliams, “The psychodynamic diagnostic manual—2nd edition (PDM-2),” World Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 237–239, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  66. J. Berkson, “Limitations of the application of fourfold table analysis to hospital data,” Biometrics Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 47–53, 1946. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. J. Cohen, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 1988.