Figure 4: Long-term opioid use after open surgery vs. MI surgery. The proportion of patients with long-term opioid use at postoperative days 180, 270, and 365 after open surgery vs. MI surgery. The highest risk occurred following thoracic surgery (at day 365, 1.7% in open surgery and 1.3% in MI surgery). MI = minimally invasive. This figure was adapted from the study by Soneji et al. [77].