Table 1: Variants of opioid receptor genes related to opioid-based analgesic therapy.

GeneClinical outcomesReference

OPRD1Increased effect sizes of pain[38]
OPRK1Heroin addiction; alcohol dependence[39]
SIGMAR1Increased risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease; decreased effects in response to antidepressants[40]
OPRM1Heroin and cocaine addiction[41]
Decreased effects in response to opioids[42]
Heroin addiction; opioid dependence[43]
Change-in-libido and insomnia side effects[44]
Increased risk in coronary heart disease[45]
Decreased effects in response to antidepressants[42]