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Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 145965, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/145965
Review Article

Effects of Combined Opioids on Pain and Mood in Mammals

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864, USA
2Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England, 11 Hills Beach Road, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA
3Department of Environmental Quality, State of Michigan, Lansing, MI 48909-7773, USA

Received 23 August 2011; Accepted 2 January 2012

Academic Editor: Young-Chang P. Arai

Copyright © 2012 Richard H. Rech et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite this Article

Richard H. Rech, David J. Mokler, and Shannon L. Briggs, “Effects of Combined Opioids on Pain and Mood in Mammals,” Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 145965, 11 pages, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/145965.