Psyche: A Journal of Entomology / 2009 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Wing Color of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in Eastern North America across Life Stages: Migrants Are “Redder” than Breeding and Overwintering Stages

Table 1

Summary of general linear model examining factors influencing wing hue of monarch butterflies in this study. Groups were “breeding,” “overwintering,” and “migrating.” Nonsignificant interaction terms (i.e., where ) were removed.

VariabledfMSFP-value

Sex1475.93187.47<.0001
Group2391.56154.23<.0001
Wing area112.354.87.0288
Sex*group210.994.33.0147
Error1672.54

Total173

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