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Psyche
Volume 2010, Article ID 380351, 34 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/380351
Review Article

A Review of the Biology of Cerataphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae), Focusing Mainly on Their Life Cycles, Gall Formation, and Soldiers

1Faculty of Economics, Rissho University, Osaki 4-2-16, Tokyo 141-8602, Japan
2Faculty of Economics, Chuo University, 742-1 Higashinakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0393, Japan

Received 22 September 2010; Accepted 8 December 2010

Academic Editor: Ai-Ping Liang

Copyright © 2010 Shigeyuki Aoki and Utako Kurosu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Species of the aphid tribe Cerataphidini (Hormaphidinae) form galls of various shapes on Styrax trees, their primary host, throughout East and Southeast Asia including tropical rainforests. All known species of the tribe produce second-instar sterile soldiers on the primary host and some also produce first-instar sterile soldiers on the secondary host. Here, we review their complicated life cycles with or without host alternation, the formation process of their remarkable galls (flower-like multiple-cavity galls in particular), and all morphs including soldiers. The life cycles of cerataphidines are basically the same as those of the subfamily Eriosomatinae, but in tropical and subtropical regions their life cycles are not very rigidly tuned to seasonal changes in the climate if any. In addition, cerataphidine galls in these regions last at least several months, or at times even for over one year; thus it often takes longer than one year to complete their life cycles.