Psyche: A Journal of Entomology / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

Table 1

Cellular responses of brain tissue from S. bullata to envenomation by N. vitripennis.

Cell responses ( 𝑋 ± SEM) %
Time (hours)Treatment 𝑛 Bleb formationIrregular nucleusHeterochromatin

0Control
Venom
3278
2743
0a
0a
0a
0a
0a
0a
0.5Control
Venom
3701
3929
0a
0a
0a
0a
0a
0a
1Control
Venom
3362
3578
0a
0a
0a
17.9 ± 2.1b
0a
24.6 ± 1.7b
3Control
Venom
2954
2881
0a
0a
1.6 ± 0.8c
31.6 ± 2.4d
0a
30.8 ± 3.1c
6Control
Venom
3460
4012
0a
0a
0.8 ± 0.1c
46.1 ± 3.6e
0a
53.2 ± 3.8d
24Control
Venom
3055
2896
0a
23.1 ± 2.4b
0a
68.4 ± 3.2f
0a
63.8 ± 4.3e

The percentage of cells that displayed formation of plasma membrane blebs, irregularities (i.e., convolutions) of the nuclear envelope, or heterochromatin formation in nuclei were determined from captured images and analyzed using SPOT (v. 4.5) and Adobe Photoshop software (Creative Suite 2, Photoshop v. 9.0). Image analyses were performed using brain thin sections from three hosts, counting a minimum of 500 cells/treatment/time point. Values in the same column followed by the same letter do not differ significantly from each other at 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 .

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