Figure 1: Diagrammatic representation of the cascading trait-mediated indirect interactions between Pseudacteon spp. and Azya orbigera. Arrows represent positive effects and solid circles represent negative effects. Black solid lines represent direct interactions, the blue solid line represents first level trait-mediated indirect interactions, the red solid lines represents the second level trait-mediated indirect interactions, and the dashed purple line represents the resulting cascading trait-mediated indirect interaction between the phorid flies and the coccinellid beetle.