Table 1: Digging rate (g), area excavated (mm2), and volume of soil excavated (cm3) by groups of workers (5, 10, 20, and 40), as a function of elapsed time.

Group size Volume of soil (g)Load/worker ratioTripsAreaVolume
12243648total

53.01.50.00.04.50.9053828.5 ± 4367.36 ± 4.1
104.51.10.00.05.60.56331066.0 ± 464.647.37 ± 3.5
209.80.30.00.010.10.50301176.5 ± 461.0111.40 ± 4.5
4021.61.71.12.426.90.67404530.4 ± 1863.6736.33 ± 12.7

*Load/worker ratio = total soil volume/number of workers in the group; **trips = (load/worker ratio)/0.017 (average mass of soil pellets).