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Psyche
Volume 2012, Article ID 484618, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/484618
Research Article

Diploid Male Production of Two Amazonian Melipona Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva (PPG-GCBEv), Coordenação de Pós-Graduação (CPG), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Avenida André Araújo 2936, 69060-001 Manaus, AM, Brazil
2Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB), Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Avenida Gal. Rodrigo Otávio 3000, 69077-000 Manaus, AM, Brazil
3Grupo de Pesquisas em Abelhas (GPA), Coordenação de Biodiversidade (CBIO), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Avenida André Araújo 2936, 69060-001 Manaus, AM, Brazil

Received 5 December 2011; Revised 13 February 2012; Accepted 27 February 2012

Academic Editor: Bethia King

Copyright © 2012 Izaura Bezerra Francini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The diploid male has already been recorded for Melipona Illger, and herein, in Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell and Melipona interrupta manaosensis Schwarz. This paper was carried out at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, AM, Brazil. We produced and monitored 31 new colonies of M. s. merrillae and 32 new colonies of M. i. manaosensis. We sampled 2,995 pupae of M. s. merrillae and 2,020 of M. i. manaosensis. In colonies with a 1 : 1 sex ratio, male diploidy was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis and workers’ behavior. We estimated 16 sex-determining alleles in M. s. merrillae and 22 in M. i. manaosensis. In colonies of M. i. manaosensis in a 1 : 1 sex ratio, workers killed the males and the queen that produced them soon after they emerged, as predicted. This behavior was not registered for M. s. merrillae, and sex ratios did not stay 1 : 1, indicating polyandry for this species.