Psyche: A Journal of Entomology

Psyche: A Journal of Entomology / 2012 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2012 |Article ID 603875 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/603875

Hiroyuki Yoshitomi, "Oriental Hydrocyphon (Coleoptera: Scirtidae: Scirtinae): Seven New Species from Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and India", Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, vol. 2012, Article ID 603875, 16 pages, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/603875

Oriental Hydrocyphon (Coleoptera: Scirtidae: Scirtinae): Seven New Species from Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and India

Academic Editor: Brian Forschler
Received29 Sep 2011
Accepted27 Dec 2011
Published19 Apr 2012

Abstract

Application Specific Instruction-set Processors (ASIPs) expose to the designer a large number of degrees of freedom. Accurate and rapid simulation tools are needed to explore the design space. To this aim, FPGA-based emulators have recently been proposed as an alternative to pure software cycle-accurate simulator. However, the advantages of on-hardware emulation are reduced by the overhead of the RTL synthesis process that needs to be run for each configuration to be emulated. The work presented in this paper aims at mitigating this overhead, exploiting a form of software-driven platform runtime reconfiguration. We present a complete emulation toolchain that, given a set of candidate ASIP configurations, identifies and builds an overdimensioned architecture capable of being reconfigured via software at runtime, emulating all the design space points under evaluation. The approach has been validated against two different case studies, a filtering kernel and an M-JPEG encoding kernel. Moreover, the presented emulation toolchain couples FPGA emulation with activity-based physical modeling to extract area and power/energy consumption figures. We show how the adoption of the presented toolchain reduces significantly the design space exploration time, while introducing an overhead lower than 10% for the FPGA resources and lower than 0.5% in terms of operating frequency.

1. Introduction

The genus Hydrocyphon Redtenbacher is represented by 100 species divided into 13 species groups from the Palaearctic and the Oriental Regions (see, e.g., [1, 2] and Tables 1 and 2). The larvae of this genus inhabit running water, for example, small rivers and streams, and the adults are frequently collected by sweeping around the larval habitat. The genus is well defined by certain characteristics (e.g., small body, deeply notched anterior margin of the mesosternum, well-developed parameres and parameroids), and has been comparatively well studied taxonomically [1, 2]. In the present paper, I describe seven new species from Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and India. In addition, new combination and additional specimens examined are presented.


No.SpeciesDescriptionDistributionZoobank LSIDSpecies group

1alticola(Klausnitzer, 1976)Bhutan: Gogona, Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F8C20A8C-A3AA-4D0D-9B03-57FCA48F24A4kambaiticus
2amaurus(Klausnitzer, 1980)Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:4536CA5C-FFAB-49A6-BE87-05601C01612Cnyholmi
3aritaiYoshitomi, 2001Taiwanurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:578D5320-29EF-4ED3-9063-C682CD9F14D5kambaiticus
4auratusRuta, 2004Vietnamurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F2DF47E7-3368-4940-AA4E-3FABFAF260E2pallidicollis
5australisLinder, 1864France, Spain, Algeria, Italy, Sicily,urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DC94FAD9-F097-4480-A753-70AD4B3D536Daustralis
6baliensisYoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DA3B36F3-6003-4C5E-B95D-7540D9CF956Cpallidicollis
7bhutanensisKlausnitzer, 1976Bhutan: Tongsa, Nepalurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:55404EFA-F485-4608-80E1-2208B26A6B1Daustralis
8bicolorYoshitomi and Satô 2003Laosurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:65E8EFE3-F292-4E78-A1AD-F9B209AE5A0Fbicolor
9bicornisYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:642BDF4D-0977-4496-A971-12E2A9CE2CDBbicornis
10bifidus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:B468746C-1769-4061-A792-271FC252C675kambaiticus
11boukali Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:033F7904-B6A4-4CA8-A92D-534263880C19pallidicollis
12celatusKlausnitzer, 1980Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3D4EC532-1502-408A-9466-2DF296B8D9C9deflexicollis
13championiReitter, 1903Spainurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:0656F99B-8CBB-4EB2-8D84-91FCB0B899E0deflexicollis
14chiangmaiensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Thailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:19450260-7983-471F-8586-A143F268FF29pallidicollis
15consolatoriusKlausnitzer, 1990Iranurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:392F24BC-1E1A-454F-894B-90792E23A22Aaustralis
16deflexicollis(Müller, 1821)Europeurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:40EFD794-C074-4959-9964-30D7BE6FA9D9deflexicollis
17deformisYoshitomi, in present studyIndiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:110BF6C5-79A4-4E12-9BA6-6A563EA40B38pallidicollis
18dentatusYoshitomi and Satô 2003Laosurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F4E68B0F-5FA9-4906-8818-32800FEE837Bdentatus
19dispar Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Thailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:CEC2D61D-EFB7-4BAF-8C9A-D5AF14DBD1D8pallidicollis
20doiinthanonensisYoshitomi, in present studyThailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:E8C8ED04-BD9D-4AE1-AFBC-5C6001B6D29Ddeflexicollis
21dubius(Klausnitzer, 1980)Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:A74EFB59-0D2D-47F7-AD69-66735D85C5DFrenati
22dudgeoniYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DB9A3BAA-B439-4405-8205-E583C6DAC007pallidicollis
23elongatusNyholm, 1981Burmaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:28F2AC64-C3BA-436B-8B9C-985BFB8DC50Erenati
24finitimusNyholm, 1977Turkeyurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8670FE8B-5559-4B6A-8283-7BF9DFBA5D48australis
25forficulatusNyholm, 1981Burmaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:009E27DE-0576-497B-8D6B-11081577B50Edeflexicollis
26fulvescensNyholm, 1977Spainurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F54C50AC-4EEB-45E8-A204-98DBB374FD33deflexicollis
27fuscatus Klausnitzer, 1970Albania: Krumaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3733A42A-4A10-4769-A161-DDE68F73CFFCdeflexicollis
28gereckeiHernando, Aguilera, Ribera 2004Morocco: Oued Zloulurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:194ED02C-FAFF-420A-925B-B67CBF4C4FB3pallidicollis
29graseriKlausnitzer, 2006Nepalurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:74A0D485-1433-4B3E-B2FF-731B28A6E166renati
30guangxiensisYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:BD810938-3FB8-4413-BE0B-F54F6D009F50pallidicollis
31hainanensisYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D9D2302B-A302-48FA-BD23-BC3186C5A2ABpallidicollis
32hamiotaNyholm, 1972Spainurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:25875BEA-7E78-4C3D-A3EB-42ACC0F155C0pallidicollis
33hydrocyphonoides(Tournier, 1868)S. Italy, Sicily, Tunisia, Algeriaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:6A2A9ECF-4168-4241-A581-DE5A66B0266Cpallidicollis
34illiesiKlausnitzer, 1991Algeriaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:CB511D28-1FFF-4860-A340-A31D6E3B20C4deflexicollis
35indonesianusYoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:615A6523-2FD4-42DF-9ED1-B293E09D81C4Pallidicollis
36interrogationisKlausnitzer, 1980Pakistanurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:5022A70A-8612-4DEC-B192-22F337EC6611deflexicollis
37iriomotensisYoshitomi, 2001Japanurn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:53354434-8857-4500-8FE1-C3E009029BE0renati
38jaechiYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:EA5536A7-A98F-492F-ABB4-95D97CFE2C0Brenati
39javanicus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:7CF900C5-A969-40D6-9BF5-D18368B9E90Apallidicollis
40jogjaensisYoshitomi, in present studyIndonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:CC3549AD-2680-4182-93F0-2E9E7509D070pallidicollis
41kachinensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Myanmarurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F8E9C354-6DD9-4033-B740-55F0821EF452deflexicollis
42kambaiticusNyholm, 1981Burmaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8F1AA735-F07C-499A-A171-17E4EE8DB7D1kambaiticus
43kaszabiKlausnitzer, 1980Vietnamurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:26FD1BD2-E452-41FA-BE50-08EAA71D0BDEdeflexicollis
44keralaensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:60A84554-498B-4344-B778-CE47153FE7ACpallidicollis
45kinabalensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Malaysiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:101D411A-4D72-45BB-A1FB-FBAA75B8C4BCkinabalensis
46klapperichiYoshitomi, in present studyIndonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:82B11C88-DDBF-4B12-9D94-19F74AAAEB7Apallidicollis
47klausnitzeri Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Thailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:776698B5-109A-4323-814D-FFEA49622164pallidicollis
48kodadai Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Philippinesurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F53BFE82-CB92-45A8-938D-C22374CC3AE3pallidicollis
49komarekiYoshitomi, 2008Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:1D12096D-BDBD-440E-A3D9-E86811FEADB0kambaiticus
50kopanddaghensisRuta, 2007USSRurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:E63FC1A7-8AFD-400E-B075-200977093FD8australis
51laandicolorNyholm, 1967Spainurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:6AAA825E-E1CA-4E78-BC55-6E86A24E7C93pallidicollis
52laosensisYoshitomi and Satô 2003Laosurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D03DCA00-B60A-4232-8D3F-6475A3AAC74Bpallidicollis
53liiYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3992B473-B847-4672-AD45-E20CF2E75EABpallidicollis
54lusonensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Philippinesurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:96F9212D-8494-4ED6-A927-2AB719A2E22Bdeflexicollis
55malaysianus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Malaysiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:432974B2-E5F0-47BD-BE78-4A6D212F1B27pallidicollis
56manfredi Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:197987B9-91AF-4953-AA96-0DF26ECB2501pallidicollis
57masatakaiYoshitomi, 2008Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:2A22EF58-D756-45C2-A94B-859B23CAA9F0deflexicollis
58minousNyholm, 1967Creteurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:2C9A3DD3-5A36-4DF3-8004-9C6A78816611australis
59mirabilis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:E40910F4-028A-4D9C-8B6A-C1AD5E13D769mirabilis
60nakaneiYoshitomi, 2001Japanurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:5AF6E7DB-3A8D-4DB8-BB32-11CA423E45A2kambaiticus
61narraensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Philippinesurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:11147154-F37B-4CC9-ADFE-A28E1A7FEBADpallidicollis
62nepalensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Nepalurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F1F7DEB9-B007-49E6-BD56-F137E101E723renati
63novakiNyholm, 1967Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greeceurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:6ACC76F1-7F7F-4D71-B191-3D3C63E7FA62deflexicollis
64nuristanicusKlausnitzer, 2004Afghanistanurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:849E2F10-EE37-44C4-9D17-724ED68D23ABpallidicollis
65nyholmi Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Nepalurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:23F104FD-61CB-480A-9252-A114A46E6558nyholmi
66oblongulusNyholm, 1967Cyprusurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:0ACA5B94-7CAB-4ADC-956D-C308859596C6australis
67ovatusNyholm, 1967Italyurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9D3B8572-8ADC-4EEA-9D64-181977729C1Adeflexicollis
68palawanensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Philippinesurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9289FAC1-3398-47E3-A114-892DFEB4D90Cpallidicollis
69pallidicollisRaffray, 1873Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria, Moroccourn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:BF53220B-9EDE-4E40-A427-90798C2291E3pallidicollis
70palniensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:2C983331-0F6B-4EDA-9C7C-9A76CF8CF5D2pallidicollis
71panensis Yoshitomi and Satô 2003Laosurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:E148DD4D-5CAB-4494-9796-DC517B8AAE1Bpallidicollis
72pernigransNyholm, 1967Spainurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:098642CD-DC7D-4229-A722-E29D5D13F671deflexicollis
73proximusNyholm, 1967Italyurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C56E7ACA-6D6D-4220-A2DE-5C68D4EFA124deflexicollis
74pulchellusKlausnitzer, 1980Nepalurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C7793CC3-C759-4CD8-B843-FF36EE5987A7deflexicollis
75rectangulusKlausnitzer, 1991Algeriaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:BE470234-B4AB-4860-AE6A-EF17BA092ABFpallidicollis
76renatiNyholm, 1981Burmaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:40BCCB76-42A7-4094-B4C4-50F686FB3107renati
77rivulorumNyholm, 1977Turkeyurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3DA3840B-6AD2-4BAA-883B-848DF04E3E15deflexicollis
78rufithorax(Gemminger, 1869)India/Sri Lankaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:4DD9F8CA-E157-4039-A17B-C3F4D6396F9Apallidicollis
79sagaingensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Myanmarurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3BD8291D-9F48-4348-BA10-E0EF70715AEFpallidicollis
80sagittigerYoshitomi, in present studyIndonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:0D309EFD-80D3-456D-821F-4C011C5A6598pallidicollis
81sakaiiYoshitomi and Satô 2003Laosurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:4A679CAE-4C32-417A-B49B-8F1BF14B2167deflexicollis
82sarawakensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Malaysiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:07DDD979-4676-484E-A7F0-FBBE4B516A16pallidicollis
83satoiYoshitomi, 2001Japan, Taiwan, Koreaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:53354434-8857-4500-8FE1-C3E009029BE0renati
84schoenmanniYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9DABE069-D895-4ACD-97DD-3EDF94BFBACFpallidicollis
85segrexNyholm, 1972Turkey, Anatolia, Iran, Caspian Seaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:1D970446-0F80-4967-B9FD-CF69C16C5C32australis
86serratibasialisYoshitomi, in present studyIndiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:1E9F878B-737F-4B31-99B7-FA7663EFFF3Cdeflexicollis
87sieberi(Klausnitzer, 2010)Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:88BA77DB-C779-46C1-BE0C-069DFC296A53pallidicollis
88similisRuta, 2004Vietnamurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C88A15E4-2F83-4DBD-B515-AD418A16CB01pallidicollis
89sinicusPic, 1934Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:77951535-1B3B-494F-AC41-EBD6A45B53F6kambaiticus
90spinosus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:2408AC80-003B-41E4-8834-CEFEEB5CA987pallidicollis
91steueriKlausnitzer, 2006Nepalurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:93909299-F337-490A-9E8A-BF4C6D008FC9kambaiticus
92stupendusNyholm, 1981Burmaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:46B80B2B-8178-4EB0-B3F3-7F0D4D15C2E1kambaiticus
93subcelatus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:1115FB1D-1947-4199-92FA-755C4AEBA401deflexicollis
94submalaysianus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Malaysiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:95BAB60F-C4C7-42F7-B756-0757C10827FDpallidicollis
95subrotundus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Thailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:45CDFA7B-AEDE-47B8-AE79-C7A055FD9ADDdeflexicollis
96subtrilobus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:4EB51544-94BF-4305-ABF4-E979ACC971AApallidicollis
97sumatrensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indonesiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:5CD0CE1E-AED2-481B-9FD2-CF5087C1299Epallidicollis
98taiwanusYoshitomi, 2001Taiwanurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:3A5B6F9A-E586-4BC8-9FAF-9F6B749AFEABrenati
99takizawaiYoshitomi, in present studyMalaysiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9BB8C12B-3602-491D-81F9-58C3FDC8831Fpallidicollis
100tamilensisYoshitomi and Satô, 2005Indiaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9C01DBD6-2538-408C-98BA-C53BACFB6F42tamilensis
101thailandicus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Thailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:E584D03E-D879-49C5-BF37-3F7F6BD5A20FRenati
102triforius Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Malaysia, Thailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:6DBD3361-AD78-430E-8B0E-662012550497renati
103trilobus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005Thailandurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DBBB00C2-5B88-45C0-A3AD-8A72C1D424E6pallidicollis
104uenoiYoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:A48EC5C2-38F1-4CCC-A832-CEF4B14C09F4kambaiticus
105vicinansNyholm, 1972Turkey, Israelurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DB707751-48AB-4693-A863-8671E0DCFDCCaustralis
106wakaharaiYoshitomi and Satô 2003Laosurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8A75EBCF-66F9-4E52-B555-A6F4A6155E79renati
107wangiYoshitomi, 2008Chinaurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C64DD841-7071-4993-8F36-61CE488BA954kambaiticus
108yoshitomiiKlausnitzer 2002Nepalurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C690CF7A-9E10-4D03-8FD7-558279A45203yoshitomii


No.SpeciesDescriptionDistributionZoobank LSIDTransferred

1Hydrocyphon atratusMotschulsky, 1863Ceylonurn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:7CE1145A-0783-4196-A201-B05397235AE5Cyphon

This is the twelfth part of my comprehensive study of “Scirtidae of the Oriental Region” [212].

2. Materials and Mandhods

This study was conducted based on the dried specimens preserved in the following public collections.

Ehime University Museum, Matsuyama (EUMJ).

Systematic Entomological Laboratory, Hokkaido University (SEHU).

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart (SMNS).

The methodology was as shown in a previous study [2]. The photographs in Figure 1 were taken under a Leica MZ95 and produced by automontage software Combine ZM.

The abbreviations used in the present paper are as follows: PL: length of pronotum; PW: width of pronotum; EL: length of elytra; EW: width of elytra; TL: total length (PL plus EL). The average value is given in parentheses after the range.

3. Description of the New Species

3.1. Hydrocyphon jogjaensis sp.n. (See Figures 1(a), 1(b), 2, and 11(a))

Type Material
Holotype male (EUMJ): “Ngaglik, Yogyakarta 7°42′28.34′′S 110°24′45.34′′E Java, INDONESIA 28. II. 2010 H. Yoshitomi leg.”
Paratype female (EUMJ): same data as for the holotype.

Male Description
Body oval, well-convex dorsally, shiny, closely covered with short yellowish-white setae. Coloration of body blackish-brown, but antennal segments I–V, lateral part of pronotum and legs yellowish-brown.
Head moderate in size, lightly convex dorsally, finely punctuate, with straight front margin of clypeus; the distance between eyes about 1.9 times as long as the maximum diameter of an eye. Eyes moderate in size, prominent. Antennae short, slender, reaching at basal part of elytra. Pronotum punctuate as in head, lightly convex dorsally, lightly depressed ventrally in lateral parts; front margin almost straight; anterolateral corners obtuse; posterolateral corners right-angle; lateral and posterior margins gently arcuate; PW/PL 2.69. Scutellum small, equilateral-triangular, punctuate as in head. Elytra oval, convex dorsally, broadest at basal 1/3, punctuate as in head; humeral parts indistinct; EL/EW 1.22; EL/PL 4.80; EW/PW 1.47; TL/EW 1.47. Legs relatively long, slender.
Caudal margin of sternite VII gently arcuate. Tergites VIII—IX moderately sclerotized, trapezoidal. Tegmen short, well sclerotized; proximal part short, fan-shaped, arcuate in basal margin; parameres stout, gently expanded laterally in basal parts, arrow-like shape in apical parts. Penis long, well sclerotized, asymmetrical, about 1.7 times as long as tegmen; pala subtrapezoidal, widest at base; parameroids long and slender, slightly asymmetrical, gently widened and punctuate in apical parts, obtuse at apices; trigonium with one long and slender projection, a little shorter than parameroids, obtuse at apex; median plate indistinct.

Female
Similar to male; pronotum yellow (probably teneral specimen); antennae relatively stout; PW/PL 2.55; EL/EW 1.23; EL/PL 4.25; EW/PW 1.35; TL/EW 1.52.
Caudal margin of sternite VII slightly pointed. Tergite VIII moderately sclerotized, trapezoidal, bearing short setae in caudal parts, with long apodemes; sternite VIII slightly sclerotized, oblong, bearing short setae along caudal margin. Ovipositor relatively short; relative length of stylus, coxite, and baculus ( ) as 1.0 : 4.0 : 15.3. Prehensor small, well sclerotized, oblong, bearing short spines in mesal part.

Measurements
Male ( ): TL 2.03 mm; PW 0.94 mm; PL 0.35 mm; EL 1.68 mm; EW 1.38 mm. Female ( ): TL 2.10 mm; PW 1.02 mm; PL 0.40 mm; EL 1.70 mm; EW 1.38 mm.

Remarks
The species belongs to the pallidicollis species group. It is similar to H. trilobus Yoshitomi and Satô and H. subtrilobus Yoshitomi and Satô with respect to the shape of the penis, but differs from them by the apices of the parameres which have an arrow-like shape.

Biological Notes
The type locality was a small river situated halfway up Mount Merapi (Figure 11(a)). The river was somewhat polluted by waste water flowing from cichlid fish farms.

Etymology
The species is named after the type locality.

3.2. Hydrocyphon takizawai sp.n. (See Figures 1(c), 1(d), 3, 4, 5, and 11(b))

Type Material
Holotype male (EUMJ): “Kinabalu Park, HQ Sabah, MALAYSIA 2–4. V. 2010 H. Yoshitomi leg.”
Paratypes 2 females (EUMJ): same data as for the holotype.

Male Description
Body oval, well convex dorsally, shiny, closely covered with yellowish white short setae. Coloration of head, mouth parts, antennal segments I–IV, prothorax and legs yellowish-brown, but posterior part of head and tarsi infuscate; antennal segments V–XI, scutellum, elytra, meso- and metaventries, and abdominal segments brown.
Head moderate in size, slightly convex dorsally, finely punctuate; clypeus rather long, straight in front margin; the distance between eyes about 1.7 times as long as the maximum diameter of an eye. Eyes moderate in size, prominent. Antennae short, reaching about proximal 1/6 of elytra. Pronotum punctuate as in head, slightly convex dorsally, depressed ventrally in lateral parts; front margin straight; antero- and posterolateral corners obtuse; lateral and posterior margins gently arcuate; PW/PL 2.51. Scutellum small, equilateral-triangular. Elytra oval, convex dorsally, broadest at the middle; humeral parts gently projecting dorsally; EL/EW 1.41; EL/PL 4.83; EW/PW 1.36; TL/EW 1.70.
Caudal margin of sternite VII arcuate. Tergite VIII moderately sclerotized, transversal trapezoidal, bearing short spines in caudal part, with a pair of short apodemes. Sternite IX well sclerotized, consisting of a pair of hemisternites, with pointed at apices. Tegmen large, well sclerotized; proximal part short, subparallel-sided; parameres long, minutely serrate in apical 1/3 of inner parts, distinctly protruding postero-interiorly in postero-lateral corners, projecting anteriorly in anterolateral corners. Penis asymmetrical, short, well sclerotized, about 0.8 times as long as tegmen; pala oblong, widest near base, tapered in proximal 2/3; parameroids short and almost straight, obtuse at apices, finely punctuate, left one long and slender, right one short and stout; trigonium consisting of a small lobe.

Female
Sexual dimorphism indistinct, but mesal part of pronotum infustate in paratype; PW/PL 2.24; EL/EW 1.42; EL/PL 4.59; EW/PW 1.45; TL/EW 1.73.
Caudal margin of sternite VII arcuate. Ovipositor relatively short; stylus with two pairs of apical setae; coxite bearing short spines; baculus without branch; relative length of stylus, coxite and baculus ( ) as 1.0 : 2.3 : 7.5. Prehensor small, slightly sclerotized, Y-shaped, bearing short spines in inner margins of apices.

Measurements
Male ( ): TL 2.04 mm; PW 0.88 mm; PL 0.35 mm; EL 1.69 mm; EW 1.20 mm. Female ( ): TL 2.07 mm; PW 0.83 mm; PL 0.37 mm; EL 1.70 mm; EW 1.20 mm.

Larvae
Body about 4.0 mm length in fully expanded specimens, subparallel-sided in thorax and abdomen which bearing short and long setae on lateral and posterior margins. Coloration of body right brown.
Head slightly protruding laterally, with three pairs of nonmelanized stemmata situated near anterolateral corners. Antennae relatively long, reaching at abdominal segment I; scape slightly curved posteriorly; flagellum 51–73 (64) segmented ( ). Labrum transverse, covered with long setae on dorsal surface; ventral lobes projecting anteriorly, with 12 pairs of stout and short setae on inner margins. Maxillary palpi long and slender; 1st segment covered sparsely with short and long setae on dorsal surface; 3rd rounded at apex, with widely apical sensory area; relative length of each segment ( ) as 1.0 : 1.0 : 1.3. Mandibles and hypopharynx typical for the genus. Thorax widest at posterior margin of mesothorax. Abdomen subparallel-sided, widest at segment V, then gently tapering posteriorly, bearing two (II–V) or one (VI–VII) pairs of short setae on lateral part. Tergite VIII trapezoidal, shallowly concave in posterior margin, with a pair of very long setae protruding from posterolateral corners. Sternite VIII semicircular, bearing long setae on lateral and posterior margins, two of those very long. Tergite IX semicircular, convex at apex, with a pair of long setae at apex, bearing pectinate short setae on lateral margin. Sternite IX transversal semicircular, with pectinate setae on posterior margin.

Measurements of Larvae ( )
TL 5.40–6.50 (5.80) mm; HW 0.80–0.90 (0.83) mm; PL 0.50–0.55 (0.52) mm; PW 1.05–1.20 (1.15) mm; TW 1.20–1.40 (1.33) mm.

Specimens Examined of Larvae
29 exs. (mature larvae), Kinabalu Park, HQ Sabah, Malaysia, 2–4. V. 2010, H. Yoshitomi leg.; 5 exs. (mature larvae), Liwagu river, Kinabalu Park, HQ, Sabah, Malaysia, 28. II. 2009, H. Uno leg.

Remarks
The species belongs to the pallidicollis species group. Judging from the shape of the penis, it is similar to H. palawanensis Yoshitomi and Satô, H. javanicus Yoshitomi and Satô, H. baliensis Yoshitomi and Satô, H. manfredi Yoshitomi and Satô, and H. sarawakensis Yoshitomi and Satô, but differs from them by the shape of the parameres projecting posteriorly and serrate in the inner margin.
The larva of this species is distinguished from the three previously known species of the larvae in the genus (H. deflexicollis [13], H. satoi [14], H. sp. [4]) by the following characteristics: (1) segment III of maxillary palpi somewhat short (about 1.5 times as long as segment I in H. deflexicollis and H. satoi); (2) the short setae on the lateral and posterior margins of tergite IX and sternite IX pectinate (simple setae in H. satoi and H. sp.).

Biological Notes
The type locality was a small stream in the Kinabalu National Park (Figure 11(b)). The stream was clear, and many aquatic insects were collected with this species.

Etymology
The species is named after Dr. H. Takizawa.

3.3. Hydrocyphon sagittiger sp.n. (See Figures 1(e) and 6)

Type Material
Holotype male (EUMJ): “(Indonesia) West Sumatra Batipuh 26. XI. 1974 T. Kobayashi,” “Egyptian kidney bean.”
Holotype male (EUMJ): “(Indonesia) West Sumatra Batipuh 26. XI. 1974 T. Kobayashi,” “Egyptian kidney bean.”

Male Description
Body oval, well convex dorsally, shiny, closely covered with yellowish-white setae. Coloration of body blackish-brown, but anterior part of head, lateral parts of pronotum, antennal segments I–V, and legs right-brown.
Head moderate in size, flat in dorsally, finely punctuate; clypeus short, straight in front margin; the distance between eyes about 2.1 times as long as the maximum diameter of an eye. Eyes moderate in size, prominent. Antennae short, reaching about proximal 1/8 of elytra. Pronotum punctuate as in head, slightly convex dorsally, depressed ventrally in lateral parts; front margin straight; antero- and postero-lateral corners obtuse; lateral and posterior margins gently arcuate; PW/PL 2.57. Scutellum small, equilateral-triangular. Elytra oval, strongly convex dorsally, broadest at the middle; humeral parts gently projecting dorsally; EL/EW 1.26; EL/PL 4.65; EW/PW 1.43; TL/EW 1.54.
Tegmen large, well sclerotized; proximal part long, peg-like; parameres wide, distinctly projecting anteriorly in antero-lateral corners, projecting subtriangularly in inner and outer corners of apices. Penis long, slightly asymmetrical, well sclerotized, about 1.5 times as long as tegmen; pala short, oblong, widest at proximal 1/3 of pala; parameroids very long, asymmetrical, almost straight, left one slightly longer than right one, excised at inner margin of left apex; trigonium consisting of a long lobe, straight, shorter than parameroids, obtuse at apex; median plate indistinct.

Female
Unknown.

Measurements
TL 2.09 mm; PW 0.95 mm; PL 0.37 mm; EL 1.72 mm; EW 1.36 mm.

Remarks
The species belongs to the pallidicollis species group, and is related to H. jogjaensis sp.n., H. trilobus Yoshitomi and M. Satô, 2005, and H. subtrilobus Yoshitomi and M. Satô, 2005. It differs from them by the following characteristics: inner corner of parameres projecting interiorly; left parameroid excised at apex; pala oblong.

Etemology
The species name refers to the shape of the apices of the tegmen.

3.4. Hydrocyphon serratibasialis sp.n. (See Figures 1(f) and 7)

Type Material
Holotype male (SEHU): “INDIA: KERALA Dhony Hills 180–450 m 7 DEC 1978 JAP-IND CO TR”.

Male Description
Body oval, well convex dorsally, shiny, closely covered with yellowish-white setae. Coloration of head, scutellum, elytra, and ventral surface of thorax and abdomen blackish-brown; pronotum, legs, and antennae yellowish-brown.
Head moderate in size, slightly convex dorsally, finely punctuate; clypeus short, straight in front margin; the distance between eyes about 2.2 times as long as the maximum diameter of an eye. Eyes moderate in size, prominent. Antennae rather stout. Pronotum punctuate as in head, lightly depressed ventrally in lateral parts; front and lateral margins straight; antero-lateral corners about 120°; postero-lateral corners right-angle; posterior margin gently arcuate; PW/PL 2.78. Scutellum small, equilateral triangular. Elytra oval, strongly convex dorsally, broadest at the middle; humeral parts gently projecting dorsally; EL/EW 1.21; EL/PL 4.59; EW/PW 1.36; TL/EW 1.48.
Caudal margin of sternite VII gently arcuate. Tergite VIII moderately sclerotized, trapezoidal, bearing short spines along caudal margin, sparsely covered with short setae in caudal part, with a pair of slender apodemes, Sternites IX slightly sclerotized, upturned in postero-lateral parts, with a pair of long apodemes. Tegmen long, well sclerotized; proximal part short, expanded antero-laterally; parameres long, minutely serrate in mesal part of inner margin, distinctly protruding postero-laterally in apical parts, projecting anteriorly in antero-lateral corners. Penis asymmetrical, long, well sclerotized, about 0.9 times as long as tegmen; pala oblong, widest at basal 1/6; parameroids longer than trigonium, finely punctuate; trigonium consisting of two lobes, longer one forked, shorter one slender; median plate indistinct.

Female
Unknown.

Measurements
TL 2.07 mm; PW 1.03 mm; PL 0.37 mm; EL 1.70 mm; EW 1.40 mm.

Remarks
The species belongs to the deflexicollis species group, but is a distinct species having a characterized tegmen.

Etymology
The species name refers to the shape of the tegmen: “serrati−” = serrate + “basialis” = basal.

3.5. Hydrocyphon doiinthanonensis sp.n. (See Figures 1(g) and 8)

Type Material
Holotype male (EUMJ): “[North THAI] Maeo Khun klang 1350 m, Doi Inthanon 19. X. 1983 M. Sakai”.

Male Description
Body oval, well convex dorsally, weakly shiny, closely covered with yellowish-white setae. Coloration of body brown, but antennae, apical part of femora, tibiae, and tarsi pale brown.
Head moderate in size, slightly convex dorsally, finely punctuate; clypeus short, straight in front margin; the distance between eyes about 2.3 times as long as the maximum diameter of an eye. Eyes moderate in size, prominent. Antennae rather stout. Pronotum punctuate as in head, slightly depressed ventrally in lateral parts; front and lateral margins straight; antero-lateral corners about 120°; postero-lateral corners almost right-angle; posterior margin gently arcuate; PW/PL 2.45. Scutellum small, equilateral triangular. Elytra oval, broadest at basal 1/4; humeral parts indistinctly projecting; EL/EW 1.28; EL/PL 4.63; EW/PW 1.48; TL/EW 1.55.
Caudal margin of sternite VII gently arcuate. Tergite VIII moderately sclerotized, trapezoidal, bearing short spines along caudal margin, sparsely covered with short setae in caudal part, with a pair of short apodemes. Sternite IX slightly sclerotized, bearing irregular setae in caudal part, with a pair of long apodemes. Tergite IX slightly sclerotized, trapezoidal, concave and bearing short spines in caudal margin, upturned in postero-lateral parts, bearing short setae in caudal part, with a pair of long apodemes. Tegmen large, well sclerotized; proximal part short, subparallel-sided; parameres long, projecting laterally in apices, projecting subtriangularly in anterior corners. Penis missing.

Female
Unknown.

Measurements
TL 2.25 mm; PW 0.98 mm; PL 0.40 mm; EL 1.85 mm; EW 1.45 mm.

Remarks
The species belongs to the deflexicollis species group. This species is distinguished from the previously known species by the concave posterior margin of the sternite and tergite IX and the shape of the parameres of the tegmen.

Etymology
The species is named after the type locality.

3.6. Hydrocyphon klapperichi sp.n. (See Figures 1(h) and 9)

Type Material
Holotype male (SMNS): “INDONESIEN: Sumatra, Prov. Aceh-Selatan, Babahrot 15–20. 8. 1983 leg. J. KLAPPERICH”.
Paratypes 2 female (SMNS): same data as for the holotype.

Male Description
Body oval, convex dorsally, shiny, closely covered with yellowish-white setae. Coloration of body blackish-brown, but lateral parts of pronotum and legs paler.
Head moderate in size, flat in dorsal surface, finely punctuate; clypeus short, straight in front margin; the distance between eyes about 2.2 times as long as the maximum diameter of an eye. Eyes relatively large, prominent. Pronotum punctuate as in head, slightly depressed ventrally in lateral parts; front and lateral margins straight; antero-lateral corners 120°; postero-lateral corners right-angle; posterior margin gently arcuate; PW/PL 2.53. Scutellum relatively large, equilateral-triangular. Elytra oval, rather convex dorsally, broadest at basal 1/3; humeral part indistinctly projecting; EL/EW 1.20; EL/PL 4.27; EW/PW 1.41; TL/EW 1.48.
Caudal margin of sternite VII gently arcuate. Tergite VIII moderately sclerotized, trapezoidal, with a short apodemes. Tergite IX slightly sclerotized, bearing short setae in apical part, with a pair of long apodemes. Tegmen relatively large, moderately sclerotized; proximal part peg-like, short; parameres obscure, serrate at lateral margins, projecting and bifid in antero-lateral corners, punctuate; lateral projections very long, as long as parameres. Penis asymmetrical, long, well sclerotized, about 2.1 times as long as tegmen; pala oblong, gently tapered anteriorly; parameroids distinctly asymmetrical, closely punctuate, almost straight, left one wider and longer than right one; trigonium consisting of a long lobe, shorter than parameroids, obtuse at apex; median plate indistinct.

Female
Sexual dimorphism indistinct in external features, but body is somewhat larger; PW/PL 2.50–2.67 (2.58); EL/EW 1.46–1.47 (1.47); EL/PL 4.05–4.56 (4.30); EW/PW 1.10–1.17 (1.13); TL/EW 1.79–1.84 (1.81).

Measurements
Male ( ): TL 1.58 mm; PW 0.76 mm; PL 0.30 mm; EL 1.28 mm; EW 1.07 mm. Female ( ): TL 2.02 & 2.50 mm; PW 1.00 & 1.20 mm; PL 0.40 & 0.45 mm; EL 1.62 & 2.05 mm; EW 1.10 & 1.40 mm.

Remarks
The shape of the tegmen of this species is similar to that of the mirabilis, the tamilensis, the kinabalensis, and the renati species groups, but this species is easily distinguished from the latter by the serrate parameres and the shape of the penis. Judging from the shape of the penis (e.g., asymmetrical parameroids and single projection of trigonium), this species probably belongs to the pallidicollis species group.

Etymology
The species is named after Dr. J. Klapperich, who was the collector of the holotype.

3.7. Hydrocyphon deformis sp.n. (See Figures 1(i) and 10)

Type Material
Holotype male (SEHU): “INDIA: KERALA Dhony Hills 180–450 m 7 DEC 1978 JAP-IND CO TR.”

Male Description
Body oval, well convex dorsally, strongly shiny, closely covered with yellowish-white setae. Coloration blackish-brown, but lateral parts of pronotum, mouth parts, antennae, and legs paler.
Head moderate in size, flat in dorsal surface, finely punctuate; clypeus relatively long, straight in front margin; the distance between eyes about 2.5 times as long as the maximum diameter of an eye. Eyes moderate in size, prominent. Antennae short and stout, reaching about proximal 1/3 of elytra. Pronotum strongly transverse, punctuate as in head, depressed ventrally in lateral parts; front and lateral margins straight; antero-lateral corners obtuse, postero-lateral corners almost right-angle; posterior margin arcuate; PW/PL 2.80. Scutellum relatively large, equilateral triangular. Elytra semicircular, well convex dorsally, broadest at basal 1/3; humeral parts slightly projecting dorsally; EL/EW 1.14; EL/PL 4.57; EW/PW 1.43; TL/EW 1.39. Legs relatively long.
Caudal margin of sternite VII gently arcuate. Tergite VIII moderately sclerotized, trapezoidal, bearing short setae and spines along caudal margin, with a pair of short apodemes. Tergite IX membranous, with a pair of long and slender apodemes. Sternite IX slightly sclerotized, oblong, bearing short setae in postero-lateral parts. Tegmen moderately sclerotized; proximal part peg-like, short; parameres short, obtuse at apices; lateral projections long. Penis asymmetrical, long, about 2.1 times as long as tegmen; pala oblong, subparallel-sided, arcuate in caudal margin; parameroids distinctly asymmetrical, left one wide and closely punctuate, diagonal in apical margin, right one distinctly curved inwardly, slender, with rather pointed apex; trigonium a little shorter than parameroids, serrate at apex; median plate short.

Female
Unknown.

Measurements
TL 1.95 mm; PW 0.98 mm; PL 0.35 mm; EL 1.60 mm; EW 1.40 mm.

Remarks
Judging from the shape of the penis in having an asymmetrical trigonium projection, this species belongs to the pallidicollis species group; however, the shape of the tegmen of this species is similar to that of the mirabilis, the tamilensis, and the renati species groups. This species is also similar to H. kinabalensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005 [2] in the shape of the tegmen and the left parameroid of the penis, but differs from it by the presence of trigonium and plate-like sternite IX.

Etymology
The species name refers to the shape of the tegmen.

4. New Combination of the Species

4.1. Hydrocyphon sieberi [15], Comb.n

Remarks
Judging from the original description and figures [15], this species clearly belongs to the pallidicollis species group of the genus Hydrocyphon. It is closely similar to H. guangxiensis Yoshitomi and Klausnitzer, 2003 [1], known from China, and differs from it by the shape of the right parameroid which has small projections at the inner margin of the apex (lacking projection in guangxiensis).

Distribution
India.

5. Additional Specimens Examined

5.1. Hydrocyphon sakaii Yoshitomi and Satô, 2003 [4]

Additional Specimens Examined
9 Males (EUMJ), “(LAOS) Ban Saleui Xam Neua 30-31. III. 2005 J. Yamasako leg.”; 1 female (EUMJ), “Mt. Phu Pan, 1500–1800 m, N20′11E 104′01 Houaphan Prov. N. E. Laos 21–25. V. 2004 T. Mizusawa”; 1 male (EUMJ), “Phu Pan (Mt.) alt. 1500–1800 m N20°11′/E104°01′ Laos 25. IV-5. V. 2004′′; 2 males (EUMJ), ditto, but “16–19. V. 2004, M. Sato leg.”

Distribution
Laos.

5.2. Hydrocyphon wakaharai Yoshitomi and Satô, 2003 [4]

Additional Specimens Examined
1 Male (EUMJ), “[N. Laos] Phu-Pan Alt. ca. 1600–1750 m Xam Neua Pref. Houapan province 21. V. 2005 T. Kurihara leg.”; 3 males (EUMJ), “N-VIETNAM: Tam Dao 21°28′N 105°38′E 19. 5.–13.6., 800–1000 m leg. Malicky 1995,” genit. s. nos. HY 857, 878, 882; 1 male, “Mt. Phu Bia Saisombun Laos 21-III-2005 M. Sato leg.”

Distribution
Laos, Vietnam.

5.3. Hydrocyphon javanicus Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005 [2]

Additional Specimens Examined
3 Males and 3 females (EUMJ), “(Indonesia) Ciburum alt. 1,600 m Mt. Gede, Jawa Barat VII. 27. 1977 Shinji Nagai leg.”; 1 male (EUMJ), ditto but “20. VII. 1997.”

Distribution
Indonesia (Java Isl.).

5.4. Hydrocyphon triforius Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005 [2]

Additional Specimen Examined
1 Male (EUMJ), “Ban A Chia 890 m Lai Chau N. Vietnam 8-V-1995 Y. Nishikawa”, genit. s. no. HY 1098.

Distribution
Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam (new record).

5.5. Hydrocyphon tamilensis Yoshitomi and Satô, 2005 [2]

Additional Specimens Examined
2 Males & 1 female (SEHU), “INDIA: TAMIL N. Coonoor 1700–1900 m 29 NOV 1978 JAP-IND CO TR.”

Distribution
India.

Acknowledgments

The author wish to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. Masahiro Ohara (SEHU), Dr. Wolfgang Schawaller (SMNS), and H. Uno (Kyoto University) for providing the opportunity to examine the specimens, and Dr. Nugroho Susandya Putra, Ahmad Taufiq Arminudin, Mohammad Ikbal, and Atu Ira (Gadjah Mada University), Dr. Haruo Takizawa (Saitama), and Yusuke Minoshima (Hokkaido University) for their help in the field investigations in 2009-2010. He also thanks Ruth Vergin for checking an early draft.

References

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Copyright © 2012 Hiroyuki Yoshitomi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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