Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Psyche
Volume 2012, Article ID 636749, 23 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/636749
Review Article

Ants as Indicators in Brazil: A Review with Suggestions to Improve the Use of Ants in Environmental Monitoring Programs

1Laboratory of Ant Ecology, Sector of Ecology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Lavras, 37200-000 Lavras, MG, Brazil
2Institute of Education of Divinópolis, Educational Foundation of Divinópolis, 35501-170 Divinópolis, MG, Brazil
3Post-Graduate Program in Entomology, Department of Entomology, Federal University of Viçosa, 36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

Received 31 May 2011; Revised 11 August 2011; Accepted 16 August 2011

Academic Editor: Jonathan D. Majer

Copyright © 2012 Carla R. Ribas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. O. Wilson, “On the future of conservation biology: editorial,” Conservation Biology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. S. Bawa, W. J. Kress, N. M. Nadkarni et al., “Tropical ecosystems into the 21st century,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5694, pp. 227–228, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. K. A. Benhin, “Agriculture and deforestation in the tropics: a critical theoretical and empirical review,” Ambio, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. J. Niemi and M. E. McDonald, “Application of ecological indicators,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 35, pp. 89–111, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. J. Goodsell, A. J. Underwood, and M. G. Chapman, “Evidence necessary for taxa to be reliable indicators of environmental conditions or impacts,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 323–331, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. T. A. Gardner, Monitoring Forest Biodiversity: Improving Conservation through Ecologically-Responsible Management, Earthscan, London, UK, 2010.
  7. M. A. McGeoch, “The selection, testing and application of terrestrial insects as bioindicators,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 181–201, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Dufrêne and P. Legendre, “Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 345–366, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Hilty and A. Merenlender, “Faunal indicator taxa selection for monitoring ecosystem health,” Biological Conservation, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 185–197, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. J. Folgarait, “Ant biodiversity and its relationship to ecosystem functioning: a review,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1221–1244, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Lach, C. L. Parr, and K. L. Abbott, Ant Ecology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2010.
  12. D. Agosti, J. D. Majer, L. E. Alonso, and R. Schultz, Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2000.
  13. E. C. Underwood and B. L. Fisher, “The role of ants in conservation monitoring: if, when, and how,” Biological Conservation, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 166–182, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. M. Philpott, I. Perfecto, I. Armbrecht, and C. L. Parr, “Ant diversity and function in disturbed and changing habitats,” in Ant Ecology, L. Lach, C. L. Parr, and K. L. Abbott, Eds., pp. 137–156, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. D. Majer, “Ants: bio-indicators of minesite rehabilitation, land-use, and land conservation,” Environmental Management, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 375–383, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. D. Hoffmann and A. N. Andersen, “Responses of ants to disturbance in Australia, with particular reference to functional groups,” Austral Ecology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 444–464, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. N. Andersen and J. D. Majer, “Ants show the way Down Under: invertebrate as bioindicators in land management,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 2, pp. 291–298, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. N. Andersen, A. Fisher, B. D. Hoffmann, J. L. Read, and R. Richards, “Use of terrestrial invertebrates for biodiversity monitoring in Australian rangelands, with particular reference to ants,” Austral Ecology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 87–92, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. D. Majer, K. E. C. Brennan, and M. L. Moir, “Invertebrates and the restoration of a forest ecosystem: 30 years of research following bauxite mining in Western Australia,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. S104–S115, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Gómez, D. Casellas, J. Oliveras, and J. M. Bas, “Structure of ground-foraging ant assemblages in relation to land-use change in the northwestern Mediterranean region,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 2135–2146, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. van Hamburg, A. N. Andersen, W. J. Meyer, and H. G. Robertson, “Ant community development on rehabilitated ash dams in the South African highveld,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 552–558, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Ottonetti, L. Tucci, and G. Santini, “Recolonization patterns of ants in a rehabilitated lignite mine in Central Italy: potential for the use of Mediterranean ants as indicators of restoration processes,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 60–66, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. C. Fagan, R. F. Pywell, J. M. Bullock, and R. H. Marrs, “Are ants useful indicators of restoration success in temperate grasslands?” Restoration Ecology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 373–379, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Castracani, D. A. Grasso, A. Fanfani, and A. Mori, “The ant fauna of Castelporziano Presidential Reserve (Rome, Italy) as a model for the analysis of ant community structure in relation to environmental variation in Mediterranean ecosystems,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 585–594, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. R. Verdú, C. Numa, and O. Hernández-Cuba, “The influence of landscape structure on ants and dung beetles diversity in a Mediterranean savanna-Forest ecosystem,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 831–839, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. R. Silva and C. R. F. Brandão, “Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) como indicadores da qualidade ambiental e da biodiversidade de outros invertebrados terrestres,” Biotemas, vol. 12, pp. 55–73, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. M. Queiroz, F. S. Almeida, and M. P. S. Pereira, “Conservação da biodiversidade e o papel das formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em agroecossistemas,” Floresta e Ambiente, vol. 13, pp. 37–45, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  28. D. Baretta, Á. L. Mafra, J. C. P. Santos, C. V. T. Do Amarante, and I. Bertol, “Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems,” Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1675–1679, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. O. Merlim, J. G. M. Guerra, R. M. Junqueira, and A. M. Aquino, “Soil macrofauna in cover crops of figs grown under organic management,” Scientia Agricola, vol. 62, pp. 57–61, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. R. S. Lacau, R. Zanetti, J. H. C. Delabie et al., “Respostas das guildas de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) a práticas silviculturais em plantio de eucaliptos,” Agrotropica, vol. 20, pp. 61–72, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  31. L. A. P. L. Nunes, J. A. Araújo Filho, and R. I. Q. Meneses, “Recolonização da fauna edáfica em áreas de caatinga submetidas a queimadas,” Caatinga, vol. 21, pp. 214–220, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  32. L. S. Ramos, C. G. S. Marinho, R. Zanetti, J. H. C. Delabie, and M. N. Schlindwein, “Impact of formicid granulated baits on non-target ants in eucalyptus plantations according to two forms of application,” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  33. A. F. Silva, B. Meireles, J. Da Silva Rosa, M. W. De Oliveira, M. S. De Castro Morini, and A. F. De Oliveira, “Evaluation of the level of metals in Camponotus rufipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected in different environments,” Sociobiology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 293–304, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  34. K. S. Carvalho, A. L. B. de Souza, M. S. Pereira, C. P. Sampaio, and J. H. C. Delabie, “Comunidade de formigas epígeas no Ecótono Mata de Cipó, domínio da Mata Atlântica, BA, Brasil,” Acta Biológica Leopoldensia, vol. 26, pp. 249–257, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. H. C. Delabie, V. R. L. D. M. Paim, I. C. Do Nascimento, S. Campiolo, and C. D. S. F. Mariano, “Ants as biological indicators of human impact in mangroves of the southeastern coast of Bahia, Brazil,” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 602–615, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. N. L. Hites, M. A. N. Mourão, F. O. Araújo, M. V. C. Melo, J. C. De Biseau, and Y. Quinet, “Diversity of the ground-dwelling ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of a moist, montane forest of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste",” Revista de Biologia Tropical, vol. 53, no. 1-2, pp. 165–173, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  37. L. D. Ramos, R. Z. B. Filho, J. H. C. Delabie et al., “Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the leaf-litter in cerrado “stricto sensu” areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil,” Lundiana, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 95–102, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  38. F. B. Endringer, I. A. Santos, M. Da Cunha Teixeira, and J. H. Schoereder, “Ant species richness in sand dune environments following burning (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Sociobiology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 415–423, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  39. M. C. Teixeira, J. H. Schoereder, J. T. Nascimento, and J. N. C. Louzada, “Response of ant communities to sand dune vegetation burning in Brazil (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Sociobiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 631–641, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  40. K. S. Carvalho and H. L. Vasconcelos, “Forest fragmentation in central Amazonia and its effects on litter-dwelling ants,” Biological Conservation, vol. 91, no. 2-3, pp. 151–157, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. J. P. Gomes, L. Iannuzzi, and I. R. Leal, “Resposta da comunidade de formigas aos atributos dos fragmentos e da vegetação em uma paisagem da floresta Atlântica nordestina,” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 898–905, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. M. S. Santos, J. N. C. Louzada, N. Dias, R. Zanetti, J. H. C. Delabie, and I. C. Nascimento, “Litter ants richness (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in remnants of a semi-deciduous forest in the Atlantic rain forest, Alto do Rio Grande region, Minas Gerais, Brazil,” Iheringia - Serie Zoologia, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 95–101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. R. C. Fonseca and E. Diehl, “Riqueza de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) epigéicas em povoamentos de Eucaliptus spp. (Myrtaceae) de diferentes idades no Rio Grande do Sul,” Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 48, pp. 95–100, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. G. Castro and M. V. B. Queiroz, “Estrutura e organização de uma comunidade de formigas em agro-ecossistemas neotropical,” Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, vol. 16, pp. 363–375, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  45. N. S. Dias, R. Zanetti, M. S. Santos, J. Louzada, and J. Delabie, “Interaction between forest fragments and adjacent coffee and pasture agroecosystems: responses of the ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae),” Iheringia - Serie Zoologia, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 136–142, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. E. Diehl, D. F. Florencio, F. A. Schmidt, and L. V. A. Menzel, “Riqueza e composição das comunidades de formigas e de térmitas na floresta nacional de São Francisco de Paula (FLONA-SFP), RS,” Acta Biologica Leopondensia, vol. 27, pp. 99–106, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  47. J. B. V. Gomes, A. C. Barreto, M. M. Michereff Filho et al., “Relationship among soil attributes and ant activity in restinga soils,” Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 67–78, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  48. C. Ilha, J. A. Lutinski, D. V. M. Pereira, and F. R. M. Garcia, “Riqueza de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) da Bacia da Sanga Caramuru, município de Chapecó-SC,” Biotemas, vol. 22, pp. 95–105, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  49. D. M. Lapola and H. G. Fowler, “Questioning the implementation of habitat corridors: a case study in interior São Paulo using ants as bioindicators,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 11–20, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. C. G. S. Marinho, R. Zanetti, J. H. C. Delabie, M. N. Schlindwein, and L. D. S. Ramos, “Ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) diversity in eucalyptus (myrtaceae) plantations and cerrado litter in Minas Gerais, Brazil,” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 187–195, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  51. V. P. G. Santana-Reis and G. M. M. Santos, “Influência da estrutura do habitat em comunidades de formigas (Hymenoptera - Formicidae) em Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil,” Sientibus, vol. 1, pp. 66–70, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  52. F. A. Schmidt and E. Diehl, “What is the effect of soil use on ant communities?” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 381–388, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. A. Tavares, P. C. Bispo, and A. C. Zanzini, “Effect of collect time on communities of epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in areas of Eucalyptus cloeziana and cerrado,” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 126–130, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  54. D. L. Braga, J. N. C. Louzada, R. Zanetti, and J. Delabie, “Rapid evaluation of ant diversity in land use systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil,” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 464–469, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. D. Majer and J. H. C. Delabie, “Comparison of the ant communities of annually inundated and terra firme forests at Trombetas in the Brazilian Amazon,” Insectes Sociaux, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 343–359, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  56. K. A. B. Kalif, C. Azevedo-Ramos, P. Moutinho, and S. A. O. Malcher, “The effect of logging on the ground-foraging ant community in eastern Amazonia,” Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 215–219, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. Y. J. Barros, V. de Freitas Melo, K. D. Sautter et al., “Soil quality indicators in lead mining and metalurgy area. II - mesofauna and plants,” Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1413–1426, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  58. E. Diehl, C. E. Sanhudo, and E. Diehl-Fleig, “Ground-dwelling ant fauna of sites with high levels of copper,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  59. M. P. Pais and E. M. Varanda, “Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil,” Neotropical Entomology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 198–206, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  60. M. S. Coelho, G. W. Fernandes, J. C. Santos, and J. H. C. Delabie, “Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as bioindicators of land restoration in a brazilian atlantic forest fragment,” Sociobiology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 51–63, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  61. C. B. Costa, S. P. Ribeiro, and P. T. A. Castro, “Ants as bioindicators of natural succession in savanna and riparian vegetation impacted by dredging in the Jequitinhonha River Basin, Brazil,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 148–157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. J. D. Majer, “Ant recolonisation of rehabilitated bauxite mines of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil,” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 97–108, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  63. J. D. Majer, “Ant recolonization of rehabilitated bauxite mines at Trombetas, Pará, Brazil,” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 257–273, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  64. M. P. D. S. Pereira, J. M. Queiroz, R. Valcarcel, and A. J. Mayhé-Nunes, “Ant fauna as a tool for the monitoring of a rehabilited sand mine at Ilha da Madeira, Itaguaí, RJ,” Ciencia Florestal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 197–204, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  65. H. L. Vasconcelos, E. H. M. Vieira-Neto, F. M. Mundim, and E. M. Bruna, “Roads alter the colonization dynamics of a keystone herbivore in neotropical savannas,” Biotropica, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 661–665, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. K. Schmidt, R. Corbetta, and A. J. A. Camargo, “Formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) da Ilha João da Cunha, SC: composição e diversidade,” Biotemas, vol. 18, pp. 57–71, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. H. Bihn, M. Verhaagh, M. Brändle, and R. Brandl, “Do secondary forests act as refuges for old growth forest animals? Recovery of ant diversity in the Atlantic forest of Brazil,” Biological Conservation, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 733–743, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. J. H. Bihn, M. Verhaagh, and R. Brandl, “Ecological stoichiometry along a gradient of forest succession: bait preferences of litter ants,” Biotropica, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 597–599, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. J. H. Bihn, G. Gebauer, and R. Brandl, “Loss of functional diversity of ant assemblages in secondary tropical forests,” Ecology, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 782–792, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. A. G. Castro, M. V. B. Queiroz, and L. M. Araújo, “O papel do distúrbio na estrutura de comunidades de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae),” Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 34, pp. 201–213, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  71. I. R. Leal, S. O. Ferreira, and A. V. L. Freitas, “Diversidade de formigas de solo em um gradiente sucessional de Mata Atlântica, ES, Brasil,” Biotemas, vol. 6, pp. 42–53, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  72. F. S. Neves, R. F. Braga, and B. G. Madeira, “Diversidade de formigas arborícolas em três estágios sucessionais de uma floresta estacional decidual no norte de Minas Gerais,” Unimontes Científica, vol. 8, pp. 59–68, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  73. F. S. Neves, R. F. Braga, M. M. Do EspíritoSanto, J. H. C. Delabie, G. W. Fernandes, and G. A. Sánchez-Azofeifa, “Diversity of arboreal ants in a brazilian tropical dry forest: effects of seasonality and successional stage,” Sociobiology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 177–194, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  74. J. C. Santos, J. H. C. Delabie, and G. W. Fernandes, “A 15-year post evaluation of the fire effects on ant community in an area of Amazonian forest,” Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 82–87, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. R. R. Silva, R. S. Machado Feitosa, and F. Eberhardt, “Reduced ant diversity along a habitat regeneration gradient in the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 240, no. 1–3, pp. 61–69, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. H. L. Vasconcelos, “Effects of forest disturbance on the structure of ground-foraging ant communities in central Amazonia,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 409–420, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  77. H. L. Vasconcelos, J. M. S. Vilhena, and G. J. A. Caliri, “Responses of ants to selective logging of a central Amazonian forest,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 508–514, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. M. J. Angilletta, R. S. Wilson, A. C. Niehaus, M. W. Sears, C. A. Navas, and P. L. Ribeiro, “Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance,” PLoS One, vol. 2, no. 2, article no. e258, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  79. E. Diehl, F. Sacchett, and E. Z. Albuquerque, “Riqueza de formigas de solo na praia da Pedreira, Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS, Brasil,” Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 49, pp. 552–556, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  80. I. R. Leal, A. G. D. Bieber, M. Tabarelli, and A. N. Andersen, “Biodiversity surrogacy: indicator taxa as predictors of total species richness in Brazilian Atlantic forest and Caatinga,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3347–3360, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. D. T. Lopes, J. Lopes, I. C. do Nascimento, and J. H. Delabie, “Epigeic ants diversity (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in three environments in Mata dos Godoy State Park, Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil,” Iheringia - Serie Zoologia, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 84–90, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  82. H. L. Vasconcelos and J. M. S. Vilhena, “Species turnover and vertical partitioning of ant assemblages in the Brazilian Amazon: a comparison of forests and savannas,” Biotropica, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 100–106, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. R. R. Silva and R. Silvestre, “Riqueza da fauna de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) que habita as camadas superficiais do solo em Seara, Santa Catarina,” Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, vol. 44, pp. 1–11, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  84. R. Silvestre and R. R. Silva, “Guildas de formigas da estação ecológica Jataí, Luiz Antônio – SP – sugestões para a aplicação do modelo de guildas como bio-indicadores ambientais,” Biotemas, vol. 14, pp. 37–69, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  85. S. Groc, J. H. C. Delabie, J. T. Longino et al., “A new method based on taxonomic sufficiency to simplify studies on Neotropical ant assemblages,” Biological Conservation, vol. 143, no. 11, pp. 2832–2839, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. C. A. Joly, R. R. Rodrigues, J. P. Metzger et al., “Biodiversity conservation research, training, and policy in são paulo,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5984, pp. 1358–1359, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  87. A. Petherick, “High hopes for Brazilian science,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7299, pp. 674–675, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  88. K. T. R. Wilkie, A. L. Mertl, and J. F. A. Traniello, “Biodiversity below ground: probing the subterranean ant fauna of Amazonia,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 725–731, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  89. J. H. Lawton, D. E. Bignell, B. Bolton et al., “Biodiversity inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest,” Nature, vol. 391, no. 6662, pp. 72–76, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. C. R. Ribas, R. R. C. Solar, R. B. F. Campos, F. A. Schmidt, C. L. Valentim, and J. H. Schoereder, “Can ants be used as indicators of environmental impacts caused by arsenic?” Journal of Insect Conservation. In press.
  91. C. R. Ribas, F. A. Schmidt, R. R. C. Solar, R. B. F. Campos, C. L. Valentim, and J. H. Schoereder, “Ants as indicators of the success of rehabilitation efforts in deposits of gold mining tailings,” Restoration Ecology. In press.
  92. B. T. Bestelmeyer, D. Agosti, L. E. Alonso et al., “Field techniques for the study of ground dwelling ants. An overview, description, and evaluation,” in Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity, D. Agosti, J. D. Majer, L. E. Alonso, and T. R. Schultz, Eds., pp. 122–144, Smithsonian Institution Press, London, UK, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  93. J. R. Gollan, L. L. D. Bruyn, N. Reid, D. Smith, and L. Wilkie, “Can ants be used as ecological indicators of restoration progress in dynamic environments? A case study in a revegetated riparian zone,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1517–1525, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. B. D. Hoffmann, “Using ants for rangeland monitoring: global patterns in the responses of ant communities to grazing,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 105–111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. R. R. Dunn, “Recovery of faunal communities during tropical forest regeneration,” Conservation Biology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 302–309, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. J. D. Majer, J. E. Day, E. D. Kabay, and W. S. Perriman, “Recolonization by ants in bauxite mines rehabilitated by a number of different methods,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 255–257, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  97. J. D. Majer and O. G. Nichols, “Long-term recolonization patterns of ants in Western Australian rehabilitated bauxite mines with reference to their use as indicators of restoration success,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 161–182, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. O. G. Nichols and F. M. Nichols, “Long-term trends in faunal recolonization after bauxite mining in the Jarrah forest of Southwestern Australia,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 261–272, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. D. C. Cardoso, T. G. Sobrinho, and J. H. Schoereder, “Ant community composition and its relationship with phytophysiognomies in a Brazilian Restinga,” Insectes Sociaux, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 293–301, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. M. A. McGeoch, B. J. Van Rensburg, and A. Botes, “The verification and application of bioindicators: a case study of dung beetles in a savanna ecosystem,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 661–672, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. A. Nakamura, C. P. Catterall, A. P. N. House, R. L. Kitching, and C. J. Burwell, “The use of ants and other soil and litter arthropods as bio-indicators of the impacts of rainforest clearing and subsequent land use,” Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 177–186, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. G. R. Pohl, D. W. Langor, and J. R. Spence, “Rove beetles and ground beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Carabidae) as indicators of harvest and regeneration practices in western Canadian foothills forests,” Biological Conservation, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 294–307, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. R. A. da Mata, M. McGeoch, and R. Tidon, “Drosophilid assemblages as a bioindicator system of human disturbance in the Brazilian Savanna,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2899–2916, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. T. A. Gardner, J. Barlow, I. S. Araujo et al., “The cost-effectiveness of biodiversity surveys in tropical forests,” Ecology Letters, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139–150, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  105. G. F. Smith, T. Gittings, M. Wilson et al., “Identifying practical indicators of biodiversity for stand-level management of plantation forests,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 991–1015, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. Y. Basset, J. F. Mavoungou, J. B. Mikissa et al., “Discriminatory power of different arthropod data sets for the biological monitoring of anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 709–732, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. Y. Basset, O. Missa, A. Alonso et al., “Changes in arthropod assemblages along a wide gradient of disturbance in gabon,” Conservation Biology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1552–1563, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  108. S. M. Philpott, W. J. Arendt, I. Armbrecht et al., “Biodiversity loss in Latin American coffee landscapes: review of the evidence on ants, birds, and trees,” Conservation Biology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1093–1105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  109. M. Kessler, S. Abrahamczyk, M. Bos et al., “Alpha and beta diversity of plants and animals along a tropical land-use gradient,” Ecological Applications, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 2142–2156, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar