Psyche: A Journal of Entomology / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Influence of Abiotic Factors on an Invasive Pest of Pulse Crops, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in North America

Table 1

Descriptions of CLIMEX parameters and parameter values used to predict the potential distribution and relative abundance of Sitona lineatus in North America.


TemperatureDV0Limiting low temperature7.0°C
DV1Lower optimal temperature16.0°C
DV2Upper optimal temperature25.0°C
DV3Limiting high temperature32.0°C
MoistureSM0Limiting low soil moisture0.10
SM1Lower optimal soil moisture0.40
SM2Upper optimal soil moisture1.00
SM3Limiting high moisture1.50
DiapauseDPD0Diapause induction day length14 h
DPT0Diapause induction temperature11.0°C
DPT1Diapause termination temperature3.0°C
DPDDiapause development days120
DPSWDiapause indicator for winter diapause0
Cold StressTTCSCold stress threshold−14.0°C
THCSCold stress temperature rate−0.00025
Heat StressTTHSHeat stress temperature threshold34.0°C
THHSHeat stress temperature rate0.002
Dry StressSMDSDry stress threshold0.02
HDSDry stress rate−0.003
Wet StressSMWSWet stress threshold2.0
HWSWet stress rate0.01

Day-degree accumulation above DV0


Day-degree accumulation above DV3


Day-degree accumulation above DVCS

DVCS 8.0

Degree-days per generation    

PDD Minimum degree days above DV0 to complete generation450

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