Table 5: Number of insect specimens from Dryocosmus kuriphilus galls collected at Marradi (Italy). Percentages of dead specimens inside galls are also reported, as well as the estimated number of parasitoids that emerged before the sampling date.

FamilySpeciesPrimary or secondary parasitoidParasitoid
n. gen/yr
Ecto- or
endo-parasitic
201120122013
Total numberDead (%)Total numberDead (%)Total numberDead (%)

ParasitoidsDryocosmus kuriphilus164567.9262178.7171482.1

TorymidaeTorymus flavipes (Walker)Primary2Ecto33023.9200-
Torymus formosus (Walker)Primary2Ecto400-0-
Torymus auratus (Muller)Primary2Ecto5202020
T. sinensis (larvae inside galls)Primary1Ecto0-2070

MegastigmidaeBootanomyiadorsalis (Fabricius)Primary2Ecto304020

EupelmidaeEupelmus urozonus DalmanPrimary/secondary2Ecto5202520944.4

PteromalidaeMesopolobus tibialis (Westwood)Primary (rarely secondary)2-3Ecto3435.3200-
Mesopolobus tarsatus (Nees)Primary (rarely secondary)2-3Ecto922.20-0-
Mesopolobus fuscipes (Walker)Primary (rarely secondary)2-3Ecto333.30-0-
Mesopolobus sericeus (Forster)Primary (rarely secondary)2-3Ecto0-0-30

OrmyridaeOrmyrus pomaceus (Geoffroy)Primary2Ecto300-20

EurytomidaeSycophila biguttata (Swederus)Primary2Endo10700-
Sycophila flavicollis (Walker)Primary2Endo1000-
Eurytoma brunniventris RatzeburgPrimary/secondary2Ecto10200-

Unidentified531001310020100

Emerged before the sampling date142-5-9-

Total parasitoids59425.16428.15444.4

to our study, further species discrimination within the E. urozonus complex has come about [24], resulting in five new Eupelmus species. Thus, within our E. urozonus figures, we might well have some of these newly described species, for example, E. confusus [24] and E. gemellus [24], both of which had been reared from D. kuriphilus galls.