Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Psychiatry Journal
Volume 2013, Article ID 257459, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/257459
Research Article

Social Anxiety, Tremor Severity, and Tremor Disability: A Search for Clinically Relevant Measures

1Saint Luke’s Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA
2Plaza Primary Care and Geriatrics, 4440 Broadway, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA
3University of Central Missouri, USA

Received 18 April 2013; Accepted 19 June 2013

Academic Editor: Claude Robert Cloninger

Copyright © 2013 Duane A. Lundervold et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. L. Busenbark, J. Nash, S. Nash, J. P. Hubble, and W. C. Koller, “Is essential tremor benign?” Neurology, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1982–1983, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. D. Louis, “Treatment of essential tremor: are there issues we are overlooking?” Frontiers in Neurology, vol. 2, article 91, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. V. Chandran and P. K. Pal, “Essential tremor: beyond the motor features,” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 407–413, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. E. D. Louis, “Essential tremor as a neuropsychiatric disorder,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 289, no. 1-2, pp. 144–148, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. D. Louis, “Essential tremors: a family of neurodegenerative disorders?” Archives of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1202–1208, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. S. Metzer, “Severe essential tremor compared with Parkinson's disease in male veterans: diagnostic characteristics, treatment, and psychosocial complications,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 85, no. 8, pp. 825–828, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. The American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, The American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
  8. D. A. Lundervold and R. Poppen, “Essential tremor and disability: a biobehavioral conditioning model,” Clinical Gerontologist, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 31–40, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. R. Schneier, L. F. Barnes, S. M. Albert, and E. D. Louis, “Characteristics of social phobia among persons with essential tremor,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 367–372, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Topçuoǧlu, Y. Bez, D. Sahin Biçer et al., “Social phobia in essential tremor,” Turkish journal of psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 93–100, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. H. Barlow, Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step By Step Treatment Manual, Guilford, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
  12. E. Othmer, E. C. Penick, B. J. Powell, M. R. Read, and S. C. Othmer, Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview-Revised (PDI-R), Western Psyhological Services, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2000.
  13. D. A. Lundervold and R. Poppen, “Biobehavioral intervention for older adults coping with essential tremor,” Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 63–73, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. G. Bain, L. J. Findley, P. Atchison et al., “Assessing tremor severity,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 868–873, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. A. Lundervold, M. F. Belwood, J. L. Craney, and R. Poppen, “Reduction of tremor severity and disability following behavioral relaxation training,” Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 119–135, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. A. Lundervold, R. Pahwa, P. A. Ament, and D. E. Corbin, “Validity of clinical and patient ratings of tremor disability among older adults,” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. M. Connor, J. R. T. Davidson, L. Erik Churchill, A. Sherwood, E. Foa, and R. H. Weisler, “Psychometric properties of the social phobia inventory (SPIN). New self-rating scale,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 176, pp. 379–386, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. P. Mattick and J. C. Clarke, “Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 455–470, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. J. Brown, J. Turovsky, R. G. Heimberg, H. R. Juster, T. A. Brown, and D. H. Barlow, “Validation of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale across the anxiety disorders,” Psychological Assessment, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. G. Heimberg, G. P. Mueller, C. S. Holt, D. A. Hope, and M. R. Liebowitz, “Assessment of anxiety in social interaction and being observed by others: the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale,” Behavior Therapy, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 53–73, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. D. Speigler and D. C. Guervremont, Contemporary Behavior Therapy, Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif, USA, 5th edition, 2010.
  22. E. Kalbe, J. Kessler, P. Calabrese et al., “DemTect: a new, sensitive cognitive screening test to support the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and early dementia,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 136–143, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. L. Benton, A. B. Sivan, K. des Hamsher, N. R. Varney, and O. Spreen, Contributions To Neuropsychological Assessment, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1994.
  24. A. L. Benton and K. des Hamsher, Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Manual, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, Iowa, USA, 1994.
  25. D. A. Lundervold, P. A. A. Ament, P. S. Holt, and E. Good, “A reexamination of the tremor disability scale-revised: a case control comparison,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders, Toronto, Canada, June 2011.
  26. O. Cohen, S. Pullman, E. Jurewicz, D. Watner, and E. D. Louis, “Rest tremor in patients with essential tremor: prevalence, clinical correlates, and electrophysiologic characteristics,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 405–410, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. P. Thawani, N. Schupf, and E. D. Louis, “Essential tremor is associated with dementia: prospective population-based study in New York,” Neurology, vol. 73, no. 8, pp. 621–625, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus