Prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Association with Sociodemographic Determinants and Depression/Anxiety Disorders in a Representative Sample of the Greek General PopulationRead the full article
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Combined Parietal-Insular-Striatal Cortex Stroke with New-Onset Hallucinations: Supporting the Salience Network Model of Schizophrenia
Brain imaging studies have identified multiple neuronal networks and circuits in the brain with altered functioning in patients with schizophrenia. These include the hippocampo-cerebello-cortical circuit, the prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit, functional integration in the bilateral caudate nucleus, and the salience network consisting of the insular cortex, parietal anterior cingulate cortex, and striatum, as well as limbic structures. Attributing psychotic symptoms to any of these networks in schizophrenia is confounded by the disruption of these networks in schizophrenic patients. Such attribution can be done with isolated dysfunction in any of these networks with concurrent psychotic symptoms. We present the case of a patient who presents with new-onset hallucinations and a stroke in brain regions similar to the salience network (insular cortex, parietal cortex, and striatum). The implication of these findings in isolating psychotic symptoms of the salience network is discussed.
Prevalence and Predictors of Postpartum Depression: Northwest Ethiopia
Background. Postpartum depression is an umbrella, which encompasses several mood disorders that follow childbirth within 6 weeks. Screening for postpartum depression would improve the ability to recognize these disorders and enhance care that ensures improved clinical outcomes. Early identification of postpartum depression is important in order to plan for implementation strategies that allow for timely treatment and support of women with postpartum depression. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of postpartum depression among women who gave birth in the last six weeks in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 526 women who gave birth in the last 6 weeks from July 1 to 30, 2018 in Gondar town. Cluster sampling technique was used. Data were collected by semi-structured and pretested questionnaire and entered into epi-Info version 7.0 and then analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model were fitted. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval has been computed and variables with -value <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of postpartum depression among 526 postnatal women was 25% (95% CI: 21, 28). Abortion history (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.97), birth weight <2.5 kg (AOR = 3.12, 95% CI: 1.78, 5.48), gestational age below 36 weeks (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.22, 3.88) unplanned pregnancy (AOR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.31), relatives’ mental illness (AOR = 1.20: 1.09–3.05), had no antenatal visit (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI: 1.81, 9.05), had no postnatal visit (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.11, 3.00) were factors significantly associated with postpartum depression. Conclusion and Recommendations. The prevalence of PPD was found to be higher. Variables like abortion history, low birth weight, gestational age below 36 weeks, unplanned pregnancy, relatives’ mental illness, had no antenatal visit, and had no postnatal visit were predisposing factors to postpartum depression. Preventive measures to avoid low birth weight and pregnancy complications are also identified as proactive ways to reduce postpartum depression. Early identification and treatment of depression during ANC and postpartum care can mitigate the impact of PPD on the mother-baby dyad. Emphasis must be given women to have ANC and PNC follow up.
Prevalence of Common Mental Disorder and Its Association with Khat Chewing among Ethiopian College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Mental disorder is a global burden that affects all groups of people. Young people, particularly college/university students, are more vulnerable to common mental disorders than the general population. Thus, students may use khat to gain immediate relief from their psychological distress which may worsen again after longer time of chewing. In Ethiopia, there are studies showing discrepant and inconsistent results of common mental disorder among college/university students. Therefore, this review sought to determine the prevalence of common mental disorder and its association with khat chewing among Ethiopian college/university students. Methods. Different kinds of literature were searched from the databases of Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO. A total of 10 primary studies which report the prevalence of common mental disorder among Ethiopian college/university students were included in the review. The data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft Excel. STATA version 14 statistical software was used for analysis. Cochran’s test statistics and test were used to assess heterogeneity. A random effects meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of common mental disorder due to the variability of the studies. Lastly, the association between common mental disorder and khat chewing was conducted. Results. The pooled prevalence of common mental disorder among Ethiopian college/university students was 37.73% (95% CI: 30.43, 45.03). The subgroup analysis showed the highest [51.9% (95% CI: 30.19, 73.70)] and lowest [33.28% (95% CI: 19.95, 46.60)] prevalences of common mental disorder among Ethiopian college/university students found in Amhara and South Nation Nationality and People regions, respectively. The pooled effect (odds ratio) of khat chewing on common mental disorder was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.95). Conclusions. In our review, it is found that more than one-third of college/university students suffered from common mental disorder. Khat chewers were found to be twofolds more vulnerable to develop common mental disorder than nonchewers.
Insight and Associated Factors among Patients with Schizophrenia in Mental Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia, 2018
Background. Insight is the degree of the patient’s awareness and understanding of their attributions, feelings, behavior and disturbing symptoms. Majority of the patients with schizophrenia have poor insight and insight is an important prognostic indicator in schizophrenia to enhance treatment compliances and reducing the risks of clinical deterioration. The main objective of this study was to assess insight and its associated factors among patients with schizophrenia at mental specialized hospital in Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2018 Mental Specialized Hospital among 455 patients with schizophrenia. Insight was measured by an abridged version of Scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary depressive scale, Oslo social support scale was used to identify factors associated with insight. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess associated factors of insight in the participants. Results. The mean score of insight was 13.66 (95% CI 13.27, 14.04). Age at first onset of illness, duration of treatments, depressive symptoms were inversely associated with mean insight score; whereas unemployed, positive and negative syndrome, previous hospitalization, >=2 episodes were positively associated with mean insight score. Conclusion. Nearly half of the study participants were scored above the mean insight score so, the clinicians and psychotherapists should have to work together to improve insight among patients with schizophrenia.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Violence against Hospital Staff at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. Violence at the workplace has become an alarming phenomenon worldwide. The real size of the problem is largely unknown and recent information shows that the current knowledge is only the tip of the iceberg. The enormous cost of violence at the workplace for person and community at large is becoming more apparent. It could be physical, sexual, and verbal in nature and could be actual or threatened. Objectives. To access prevalence and associated factors of violence against hospital staff at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was employed in 2017. The data were collected using Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Study Questionnaire from 496 participants. Participants had been selected using simple random sampling technique and data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The collected data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1, and SPSS version 21 was used for Analysis. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify factors associated with the outcome variable. Result. From 496 staff intended to have participated in this study, complete data were obtained from 435, making a response rate of 87.7%. This research showed high prevalence of violence and we have got that staff had been exposed to physical violence 36.8%, verbal violence 62.1%, and sexual violence 21.8 % over the past year, respectively. Age, sex, and contact with the patient were statistically significant variables (). Conclusion and Recommendation. According to this study, majority of AMSH staff were violated by the patient they care.
Factors Associated with Depression among Heart Failure Patients at Cardiac Follow-Up Clinics in Northwest Ethiopia, 2017: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Depression is a comorbid disorder in patients with heart failure and it is a major public health problem worldwide. Little is known about the depression among heart failure patients in low-income countries, while, in Ethiopia, none was studied. Objective. This study is to assess the prevalence of depression and associated factors among heart failure patients at cardiac follow-up clinics at Amhara Region Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2017. Methods. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted between March 30, 2017, and May 15, 2017, G.C., by using a systematic random sampling technique to select 422 of 1395 HF patients. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and patient card review with a checklist that incorporates the PHQ-9 tool for depression measurement were used. The collected data were checked, coded, and entered into Epi-info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 20. Bivariate logistic regression at p-value <0.2 was exported to multivariate logistic regressions and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. A total of 403 were included with a response rate of 95.5%. Among the participants, 51.1% had depressive symptoms. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were poor self-care behavior 1.60 [AOR (95% CI=1.01, 2.55)], poor social support 1.90 [AOR (95% CI=1.16, 3.12)], being female 2.70 [AOR (95% CI=1.44, 5.07)], current smoking history 4.96 [AOR (95% CI=1.54, 15.98)], and duration of heart failure (>1 year) 1.64 [AOR (95% CI=1.04, 2.59)]. Conclusions. Around half of the patients were depressive. The patients who had poor self-care behavior, were females, had poor social support, had a current history of smoking, and had duration of chronic heart failure >1 year need special attention. Therefore, all referral hospitals need efforts to focus on those problems and target improvements of depressive symptoms.