Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Psychiatry Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 464685, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/464685
Review Article

Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence

1The Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, UK
2Rehabilitation Sciences, The Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, UK

Received 30 November 2012; Revised 4 March 2013; Accepted 4 March 2013

Academic Editor: Umberto Albert

Copyright © 2013 Jonathan Scott and Alison P. Porter-Armstrong. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. E. Caplan, “Relations among loneliness, social anxiety, and problematic internet use,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 234–242, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. T. Lam and Z. W. Peng, “Effect of pathological use of the internet on adolescent mental health: a prospective study,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 164, no. 10, pp. 901–906, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Kormas, E. Critselis, M. Janikian, D. Kafetzis, and A. Tsitsika, “Risk factors and psychosocial characteristics of potential problematic and problematic internet use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 11, p. 595, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. J. Block, “Issues for DSM-V: internet addiction,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 306–307, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Morgan and S. R. Cotten, “The relationship between Internet activities and depressive symptoms in a sample of college freshmen,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 133–142, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. J. van Rooij, T. M. Schoenmakers, R. J. J. M. van de Eijnden, and D. van de Mheen, “Compulsive internet use: the role of online gaming and other internet applications,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. C. Frangos, C. C. Frangos, and I. Sotiropoulos, “Problematic internet use among Greek university students: an ordinal logistic regression with risk factors of negative psychological beliefs, pornographic sites, and online games,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 51–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. J. Blais, W. M. Craig, D. Pepler, and J. Connolly, “Adolescents online: the importance of internet activity choices to salient relationships,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 522–536, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. M. Morrison and H. Gore, “The relationship between excessive internet use and depression: a questionnaire-based study of 1,319 young people and adults,” Psychopathology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. COMSCORE, “Worldwide online gaming community reaches 217 million people,” 2007, http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Press_Releases/2007/07/Worldwide_Online_Gaming_Grows.
  11. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, “eGames Data Brief,” 2007, http://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/Research/DataBriefs/egamesresearch.pdf.
  12. NPD GROUP, “Video games experience significant growth in online gaming activities,” 2009, https://http://www.npd.com/wps/portal/npd/us/news/press-releases/pr_090310a/.
  13. T. Byron, Safer Children in A digital World: the Report of the Byron Review, Department for Children, Schools and Families, London, UK, 2008.
  14. C. S. Wan and W. B. Chiou, “Why are adolescents addicted to online gaming? An interview study in Taiwan,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 762–766, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. B. Weaver, D. Mays, S. Sargent Weaver et al., “Health-risk correlates of video-game playing among adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 299–305, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Porter, V. Starcevic, D. Berle, and P. Fenech, “Recognizing problem video game use,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 120–128, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. G. Kim and J. Kim, “Cross-validation of reliability, convergent and discriminant validity for the problematic online game use scale,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 389–398, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Kuss and M. D. Griffiths, “Internet gaming addiction: a systematic review of empirical research,” International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 278–296, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. E. Allison, L. von Wahlde, T. Shockley, and G. O. Gabbard, “The development of the self in the era of the internet and role-playing fantasy games,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 381–385, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Young, “Understanding online gaming addiction and treatment issues for adolescents,” The American Journal of Family Therapy, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 355–372, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Pawlikowski and M. Brand, “Excessive Internet gaming and decision making: do excessive World of Warcraft players have problems in decision making under risky conditions?” Psychiatry Research, vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 428–433, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Messias, J. Castro, A. Saini, M. Usman, and D. Peeples, “Sadness, suicide, and their association with video game and internet overuse among teens: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 and 2009,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 307–315, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. F. Shieh and M. S. Cheng, “An empirical study of experiential value and lifestyles and their effects on satisfaction in adolescents: an example using online gaming,” Adolescence, vol. 42, no. 165, pp. 199–215, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. Hussain and M. D. Griffiths, “The attitudes, feelings, and experiences of online gamers: a qualitative analysis,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 747–753, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Longman, E. O'Connor, and P. Obst, “The effect of social support derived from world of warcraft on negative psychological symptoms,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 563–566, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Demetrovics, R. Urbán, K. Nagygyörgy et al., “Why do you play? The development of the motives for online gaming questionnaire (MOGQ),” Behavior Research Methods, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 814–825, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. R. W. Lent, “Toward a unifying theoretical and practical perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment,” Journal of Counseling Psychology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 482–509, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. M. Grüsser, R. Thalemann, and M. D. Griffiths, “Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression?” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 290–292, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. P. Charlton and I. D. W. Danforth, “Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the context of online game playing,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1531–1548, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. J. Ferguson, M. Coulson, and J. Barnett, “A meta-analysis of pathological gaming prevalence and comorbidity with mental health, academic and social problems,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1573–1578, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. M. Smyth, “Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 717–721, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Frostling-Henningsson, “First-person shooter games as a way of connecting to people: ‘brothers in blood’,” Cyberpsychology and Behavior, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 557–562, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Holtz and M. Appel, “Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence,” Journal of Adolescence, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. H. Kwon, C. S. Chung, and J. Lee, “The effects of escape from self and interpersonal relationship on the pathological use of internet games,” Community Mental Health Journal, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 113–121, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Lemola, S. Brand, N. Vogler, N. Perkinson-Gloor, M. Allemand, and A. Grob, “Habitual computer game playing at night is related to depressive symptoms,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 117–122, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Li, A. Liau, and A. Khoo, “Examining the influence of actual-ideal self-discrepancies, depression, and escapism, on pathological gaming among massively multiplayer online adolescent gamers,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 535–539, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Law, D. Stewart, N. Pollock, L. Letts, J. Bosch, and M. Wetmorland, “1998-last update. Guidelines for critical review form—quantitative studies [Homepage of McMaster University],” http://www.srs-mcmaster.ca/Portals/20/pdf/ebp/quanreview.pdf.
  38. L. Letts, S. Wilkins, M. Law, J. Bosch, and M. Westmorland, “2007-last update. Guidelines for critical review form—qualitative studies (version 2, 0) [Homepage of McMaster University],” http://www.srs-mcmaster.ca/Portals/20/pdf/ebp/qualreview_version2.0.pdf.
  39. J. Macdermid and M. Law, “Evaluating the evidence,” in Evidence-Based Rehabilitation: A Guide to Practice, M. Law and J. Macdermid, Eds., pp. 121–142, Slack, Thorofare, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  40. K. Parahoo, Nursing Research: Principles, Process and Issues, Palgrave McMillan, Houndmills, UK, 1997.
  41. M. C. Taylor, Evidence-Based Practice For Occupational Therapists, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2007.
  42. H. Aveyard, Doing a Literature Review in Health and Social Care: A Practical Guide, Open University Press, Maidenhead, UK, 2nd edition, 2010.
  43. R. Ingham-Broomfield, “A nurses' guide to the critical reading of research,” Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 102–109, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. Finlay, “Evaluating research articles,” British Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 205–208, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. I. K. Crombie, The Pocket Guide to Critical Appraisal, BMJ Publishing, London, UK, 1996.
  46. S. Polgar and S. A. Thomas, Introduction To Research in the Health Sciences, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 5th edition, 2008.
  47. A. Bowling, “Techniques of questionnaire design,” in Handbook of Health Research Methods: Investigation, Measurement and Analysis, A. Bowling and S. Ebrahim, Eds., Open University Press, Maidenhead, UK, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  48. K. E. Berg and R. W. Latin, Essentials of Research Methods in Health, Physical Education, Exercise Science and Recreation, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
  49. H. Cooper, Synthesizing Research: A Guide For literature Reviews, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 3rd edition, 1998.
  50. D. Oliver and S. M. Mahon, “Reading a research article part III: the data collection instrument,” Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 423–426, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Drummond, “Reviewing a research article,” British Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 84–86, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. Wilding and G. Whiteford, “Phenomenological research: an exploration of conceptual, theoretical, and practical issues,” OTJR Occupation, Participation and Health, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 98–104, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Tickle-Degnen and G. Bedell, “Heterarchy and hierarchy: a critical appraisal of the ‘levels of evidence’ as a tool for clinical decision making,” American Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 234–237, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. White, “Questions for occupational therapy practice,” in Willard and Spackman’s Occupational Therapy, E. B. Crepeau, E. S. Cohn, and B. A. Boyt Schell, Eds., pp. 262–272, Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, Pa, USA; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 11th edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. S. Lemmens, P. M. Valkenburg, and J. Peter, “Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 144–152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. P. Freddolino and C. M. Blaschke, “Therapeutic applications of online gaming,” Journal of Technology in Human Services, vol. 26, no. 2-4, pp. 423–446, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Shandley, D. Austin, B. Klein, and M. Kyrios, “An evaluation of “Reach Out Central”: an online gaming program for supporting the mental health of young people,” Health Education Research, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 563–574, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. Pope and N. Mays, “Observational methods,” in Qualitative Research in Health Care, C. Pope and N. Mays, Eds., pp. 32–42, Blackwell, Malden, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  59. N. Mays and C. Pope, “Quality in qualitative health research,” in Qualitative Research in Health Care, C. Pope and N. Mays, Eds., pp. 82–101, Blackwell, Malden, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  60. D. M. Bailey, “Research: discovering knowledge through systematic investigation,” in Willard and Spackman’a Occupational Therapy, E. B. Crepeau, E. S. Cohn, and B. A. Boyt Schell, Eds., pp. 963–971, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 10th edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  61. J. Creek, Occupational Therapy Defined as a Complex Intervention, College of Occupational Therapists, London, UK, 2003.
  62. B. R. Hasselkus, The Meaning of Everyday Occupation, Slack, Thorofare, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 2011.
  63. N. Pollard and F. Kronenberg, “Working with people on the margins,” in Occupational Therapy and Mental Health, J. Creek and L. Lougher, Eds., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 4th edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  64. M. A. Daniel and S. E. E. Blair, “An introduction to the psychodynamic frame of reference,” in Foundations For Practice in Occupational Therapy, E. A. S. Duncan, Ed., Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Edinburgh, UK, 5th edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar