Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Psychiatry Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 730956, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/730956
Review Article

The Potential Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Psychiatry

Genomind, Inc., 2200 Renaissance Boulevard, Suite 100, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA

Received 29 September 2014; Accepted 23 November 2014; Published 17 December 2014

Academic Editor: Andrzej Pilc

Copyright © 2014 Kathryn R. Gardner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, “Depression,” Fact Sheet No. 369, World Health Organization, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Prince, V. Patel, S. Saxena et al., “No health without mental health,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9590, pp. 859–877, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. B. Cohen, “The concentration of health care expenditures and related expenses for costly medical conditions,” Tech. Rep. 455, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. D. Warden, A. J. Rush, M. H. Trivedi, M. Fava, and S. R. Wisniewski, “The STAR*D project results: a comprehensive review of findings,” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 449–459, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. A. Mrazek, “Psychiatric pharmacogenomic testing in clinical practice,” Dialogues in Clinical NeuroSciences, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. E. Evans and H. L. McLeod, “Pharmacogenomics—drug disposition, drug targets, and side effects,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 6, pp. 538–549, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Vegter, C. Boersma, M. Rozenbaum, B. Wilffert, G. Navis, and M. J. Postma, “Pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacogenetic and genomic screening programmes: a systematic review on content and adherence to guidelines,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 569–587, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Dervieux, B. Meshkin, and B. Neri, “Pharmacogenetic testing: proofs of principle and pharmacoeconomic implications,” Mutation Research, vol. 573, no. 1-2, pp. 180–194, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. A. Garriock, J. B. Kraft, S. I. Shyn et al., “A genomewide association study of citalopram response in major depressive disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 133–138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. A. Altar, J. Hornberger, A. Shewade, V. Cruz, J. Garrison, and D. Mrazek, “Clinical validity of cytochrome P450 metabolism and serotonin gene variants in psychiatric pharmacotherapy,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 509–533, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Kato and A. Serretti, “Review and meta-analysis of antidepressant pharmacogenetic findings in major depressive disorder,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 473–500, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. T. Baune, C. Hohoff, K. Berger et al., “Association of the COMT val158met variant with antidepressant treatment response in major depression,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 924–932, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. J. Kobylecki, K. D. Jakobsen, T. Hansen, I. V. Jakobsen, H. B. Rasmussen, and T. Werge, “CYP2D6 genotype predicts antipsychotic side effects in schizophrenia inpatients: a retrospective matched case-control study,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 222–226, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J.-P. Zhang, T. Lencz, and A. K. Malhotra, “D2 receptor genetic variation and clinical response to antipsychotic drug treatment: a meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 167, no. 7, pp. 763–772, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Porcelli, C. Fabbri, and A. Serretti, “Meta-analysis of serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) association with antidepressant efficacy,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 239–258, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. U. A. Meyer, “Pharmacogenetics and adverse drug reactions,” The Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9242, pp. 1667–1671, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Herbild, S. E. Andersen, T. Werge, H. B. Rasmussen, and G. Jürgens, “Does pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and 2C19 among patients with diagnoses within the schizophrenic spectrum reduce treatment costs?” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 266–272, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. H. Chou, F.-X. Yan, J. de Leon et al., “Extension of a pilot study: Impact from the cytochrome P450 2D6 polymorphism on outcome and costs associated with severe mental illness,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 246–251, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Ruano, B. L. Szarek, D. Villagra et al., “Length of psychiatric hospitalization is correlated with CYP2D6 functional status in inpatients with major depressive disorder,” Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 429–439, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Winner, J. D. Allen, C. A. Altar, and A. Spahic-Mihajlovic, “Psychiatric pharmacogenomics predicts health resource utilization of outpatients with anxiety and depression,” Translational psychiatry, vol. 3, article e242, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Fagerness, E. Fonesca, G. P. Hess et al., “Pharmacogenetic-guided psychiatric intervention associated with increased adherence and cost savings,” The Amercian Journal of Managed Care, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. e146–e156, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  22. D. L. Murphy and P. R. Moya, “Human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) variants: their contributions to understanding pharmacogenomic and other functional G × G and G × e differences in health and disease,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Farah, “The role of L-methylfolate in depressive disorders,” CNS Spectrums, vol. 14, supplement 2, no. 1, pp. 2–7, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. I. Papakostas, R. C. Shelton, J. M. Zajecka et al., “L-methylfolate as adjunctive therapy for SSRI-resistant major depression: results of two randomized, double-blind,,parallel-sequential trials,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 169, no. 12, pp. 1267–1274, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. L. Wade, S. L. Kindermann, Q. Hou, and M. E. Thase, “Comparative assessment of adherence measures and resource use in SSRI/SNRI-treated patients with depression using second-generation antipsychotics or l-methylfolate as adjunctive therapy,” Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 76–85, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Patel, “AANP poster presentation explores impact of baseline levels of BMI, hsCRP, and MTHFR on effect of adjunctive L-methylfolate 15 mg in depressed patients,” 2013.
  27. J. G. Hoop, M. I. Lapid, R. M. Paulson, and L. W. Roberts, “Clinical and ethical considerations in pharmacogenetic testing: views of physicians in 3 “early adopting” departments of psychiatry,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 745–753, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. B. Gibson, Y. Jing, G. S. Carls et al., “Cost burden of treatment resistance in patients with depression,” The American Journal of Managed Care, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 370–377, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Olchanski, M. McInnis Myers, M. Halseth et al., “The economic burden of treatment-resistant depression,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 512–522, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. S. McCombs, M. B. Nichol, G. L. Stimmel, D. A. Sclar, C. M. Beasley Jr., and L. S. Gross, “The cost of antidepressant drug therapy failure: a study of antidepressant use patterns in a Medicaid population,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 60–71, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. L. Svarstad, T. I. Shireman, and J. K. Sweeney, “Using drug claims data to assess the relationship of medication adherence with hospitalization and costs,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 805–811, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. M. Murphy Jr., S. B. Hollander, H. E. Rodrigues, C. Kremer, and A. F. Schatzberg, “Effects of the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism on mirtazapine and paroxetine efficacy and adverse events in geriatric major depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1163–1169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Lencz, D. G. Robinson, B. Napolitano et al., “DRD2 promoter region variation predicts antipsychotic-induced weight gain in first episode schizophrenia,” Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 569–572, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Bhat, D. T. Dao, C. E. Terrillion et al., “CACNA1C (Cav1.2) in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group, “Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4,” Nature Genetics, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 977–983, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. L. G. Leahy, “Intermittent explosive disorder: a study in personalized psychopharmacotherapy,” Nurse Practitioner, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 10–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Lawrence, “31-year-old female shows marked improvement in depression, agitation, and panic attacks after genetic testing was used to inform treatment,” Case Reports in Psychiatry, vol. 2014, Article ID 842349, 4 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. M. P. Leussis, J. M. Madison, and T. L. Petryshen, “Ankyrin 3: genetic association with bipolar disorder and relevance to disease pathophysiology,” Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 18, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  39. C. C. Kuo and L. Lu, “Characterization of lamotrigine inhibition of Na+ channels in rat hippocampal neurones,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 1231–1238, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Jaeckle, “Patient with major depressive disorder responds to L-Methylfolate post-genetic testing,” Journal of Depression and Anxiety, vol. 3, no. 2, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  41. N. A. Qureshi and A. Mohammed, “Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. 9, pp. 639–658, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. J. Lewis, D. A. Lawlor, G. Davey Smith et al., “The thermolabile variant of MTHFR is associated with depression in the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 352–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. G. Hoop, L. W. Roberts, K. A. Green Hammond, and N. J. Cox, “Psychiatrists' attitudes regarding genetic testing and patient safeguards: a preliminary study,” Genetic Testing, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 245–252, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. B. Lanktree, G. Zai, L. E. Vanderbeek et al., “Positive perception of pharmacogenetic testing for psychotropic medications,” Human Psychopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 287–291, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Schmidt, “Even with no treatment available, cancer patients want to know metastasis risk,” 2009, http://www.newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/cancer-patients-want-genetic-testing-93297.aspx.
  46. H. Calsbeek, M. Morren, J. Bensing, and M. Rijken, “Knowledge and attitudes towards genetic testing: a two year follow-up study in patients with asthma, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Genetic Counseling, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 493–504, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. R. DiMatteo, H. S. Lepper, and T. W. Croghan, “Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 14, pp. 2101–2107, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. W. S. Fenton, C. R. Blyler, and R. K. Heinssen, “Determinants of medication compliance in schizophrenia: empirical and clinical findings,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 637–651, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. H. Miller and C. Wahlestedt, “MicroRNA dysregulation in psychiatric disease,” Brain Research, vol. 1338, pp. 89–99, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Rong, T. B. Liu, K. J. Yang et al., “MicroRNA-134 plasma levels before and after treatment for bipolar mania,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 92–95, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. Ikegame, M. Bundo, Y. Murata, K. Kasai, T. Kato, and K. Iwamoto, “DNA methylation of the BDNF gene and its relevance to psychiatric disorders,” Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 434–438, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. O. M. Wolkowitz, J. Wolf, W. Shelly et al., “Serum BDNF levels before treatment predict SSRI response in depression,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1623–1630, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Sen, R. Duman, and G. Sanacora, “Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, depression, and antidepressant medications: meta-analyses and implications,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 527–532, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. N. Perroud, A. Salzmann, P. Prada et al., “Response to psychotherapy in borderline personality disorder and methylation status of the BDNF gene,” Translational Psychiatry, vol. 3, article e207, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Fuchikami, S. Morinobu, A. Kurata, S. Yamamoto, and S. Yamawaki, “Single immobilization stress differentially alters the expression profile of transcripts of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and histone acetylation at its promoters in the rat hippocampus,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 73–82, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus