Psychiatry Journal / 2017 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Serious Psychological Distress and Emergency Room Use among Adults with Multimorbidity in the United States

Table 2

Weighted row percentages, adjusted odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals of serious psychological distress from logistic regressions on ER use in the past 12 months. National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

Wt.%AOR95% CI value

Predisposing factors
Sex
 Women27.90.98[0.86, 1.10]0.685
 Men (Ref.)25.6
Age in years
 22–3939.32.70[2.21, 3.30]<0.001
 40–4927.01.35[1.13, 1.62]0.001
 50–6425.91.14[1.00, 1.30]0.058
 ≥65 (Ref.)24.5
Race/ethnicity
 Hispanic29.60.93[0.77, 1.13]0.487
 Non-Hispanic black35.11.34[1.15, 1.56]<0.001
  Other non-Hispanic races19.00.66[0.51, 0.84]0.001
 Non-Hispanic white (Ref.)25.6

Enabling factors
Marital status
 Married24.01.08[0.89, 1.30]0.448
 Widowed, separated, divorced31.01.18[0.97, 1.42]0.090
 Never (Ref.)33.7
Education level
 High school28.80.92[0.76, 1.13]0.436
 Greater than high school23.40.93[0.77, 1.13]0.464
 Less than high school (Ref.)36.8
Poverty status
 100–<200%34.90.89[0.74, 1.06]0.203
 200–<400%26.70.72[0.59, 0.87]0.001
 ≥400%18.30.65[0.53, 0.80]0.000
 Missing26.10.83[0.63, 1.08]0.169
 <100% FPL (Ref.)42.9
Health insurance
 Insured26.41.00[0.78, 1.28]0.999
 Uninsured (Ref.)35.7

Need factors
SPD status
 SPD54.11.61[1.26, 2.04]<0.001
 No SPD (Ref.)25.2
Perceived general health
 Excellent/very good15.80.40[0.34, 0.48]<0.001
 Good26.10.62[0.54, 0.71]<0.001
 Fair/poor (Ref.)44.1
Functional limitations
 No16.00.55[0.48, 0.64]<0.001
 Yes (Ref.)33.2

Personal health practices
Body mass index
 Underweight/normal28.61.18[1.02, 1.38]0.028
 Overweight22.90.92[0.81, 1.05]0.231
 Missing23.70.76[0.54, 1.09]0.133
 Obese (Ref.)29.3
Smoking status
 Nonsmoker23.50.77[0.66, 0.91]0.001
 Former smoker26.40.88[0.75, 1.04]0.145
 Current smoker (Ref.)38.7
Alcohol use
 Lifetime abstainer29.31.10[0.92, 1.31]0.281
 Former drinker32.61.16[1.00, 1.34]0.047
 Current drinker (Ref.)23.9
Physical activity
 Daily19.30.75[0.56, 1.01]0.059
 Weekly19.20.87[0.74, 1.02]0.082
 Unable47.41.51[1.13, 2.01]0.005
 No exercise (Ref.)29.0

External environmental factors
Region of residence
 Northeast26.21.03[0.87, 1.23]0.714
 Midwest28.31.08[0.93, 1.26]0.306
 South27.10.95[0.83, 1.08]0.414
 West (Ref.)25.1

Note. Based on 12,869 adults aged over 21 years having two or more physical diseases with and without serious psychological distress (SPD). SPD was defined as a score of 13 or greater on the K6. Wt.: weighted; AOR: adjusted odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; Ref.: reference group; SPD: serious psychological distress; FPL: federal poverty line.