Preliminary Evaluation of a New Orthotic for Patellofemoral and Multicompartment Knee OsteoarthritisRead the full article
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Relationship between Trunk Position Sense and Trunk Control in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background and Aim. Children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) have impaired trunk control. Joint position sense, a component of proprioception, plays a crucial role in maintaining spinal mobility and stability. The current study is aimed at analysing the relationship between trunk control and trunk position sense in children with spastic CP. Methods. In this study, 24 children with spastic CP aged between 8 and 15 years were recruited. They were classified based on their functional performance using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Trunk control and trunk position sense were assessed using the trunk control measurement scale (TCMS) and digital goniometer, respectively. The correlation between these variables was tested using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results. Significant negative correlation was found between trunk position sense and TCMS score. Similarly, a significant moderate correlation was found between trunk position sense and GMFCS. A strong negative correlation was also found between GMFCS and TCMS. Conclusion. Children with spastic CP with better trunk position sense had better trunk control. Similarly, children with higher functional performance had better trunk control and lesser error in trunk position sense. The current findings imply the relevance of proprioceptive training of the trunk for enhancing trunk motor control in children with spastic CP.
Immediate Effect of Restricted Knee Extension on Ground Reaction Force and Trunk Acceleration during Walking
Gait parameters calculated from trunk acceleration reflect the features of gait; however, they cannot evaluate the gait pattern corresponding to the gait cycle. This study is aimed at investigating the differences in gait parameters calculated from trunk acceleration during gait corresponding to the gait cycle in healthy subjects with restricted knee extension. Participants included eight healthy volunteers who walked normally (NW) and with knee orthosis that restricted knee extension (ER). The ground reaction force (GRF), joint angles, and trunk acceleration during walking were measured using four force plates, a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and an inertial measurement unit. The peak GRF of the vertical components, joint ranges of motion, and moments of force were analyzed. The root mean square (RMS) and amplitude peak ratio (AR) of autocorrelation function were calculated from the trunk acceleration waveform. The first peak GRF and peak ankle dorsiflexion angles significantly increased during ER. The peak hip extension, knee flexion, knee extension angles, and the peak moment of knee extension significantly decreased during ER compared to that during NW. The acceleration AR significantly decreased during ER compared to that during NW. There was no significant difference in the RMS between the two conditions. The acceleration AR may show the temporal postural structure with restricted knee extension from the terminal stance phase for the ipsilateral limb to the initial stance phase for the contralateral limb. These results suggest that novel metrics for accelerometry gait analysis can reveal gait abnormalities, with restricted knee extension corresponding to the gait cycle.
Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Psychometric Validation of the Chinese/Mandarin Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS-C/M)
Objective. Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity in China and around the world. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) effectively mitigates this burden; however, utilization is low. CR barriers in China have not been well characterized; this study sought to translate, cross-culturally adapt, and psychometrically validate the CR Barriers Scale in Chinese/Mandarin (CRBS-C/M). Methods. Independent translations of the 21-item CRBS were conducted by two bilingual health professionals, followed by back-translation. A Delphi process was undertaken with five experts to consider the semantics and cross-cultural relevance of the items. Following finalization, 380 cardiac patients from 11 hospitals in Shanghai were administered a validation survey including the translated CRBS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency was assessed. Validity was tested through assessing the association of the CRBS-C/M with the CR Information Awareness Questionnaire. Results. Items were refined and finalized. Factor analysis of CRBS-C/M (, Bartlett’s test ) revealed five factors: perceived CR need, external logistical factors, time conflicts, program and health system-level factors, and comorbidities/lack of vitality; Cronbach’s alpha () of the subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.82. The mean total CRBS score was significantly lower in patients who participated in CR compared with those who did not, demonstrating criterion validity ( vs. ; ). Construct validity was supported by the significant associations between total CRBS scores and CR awareness, sex, living situation, city size, income, diagnosis/procedure, disease severity, and several risk factors (all ). Conclusions. CRBS-C/M is reliable and valid, so barriers can be identified and mitigated in Mandarin-speaking patients.
Development of the Home Fall Hazard Checklist
Objective. Home hazard assessment is particularly important following a fracture as a means of preventing subsequent fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current checklists and evidence on home hazard to develop a usable self-administered checklist that could be used by adults to assess home hazards. Design. Review and observational, prospective study. Setting. Community dwelling. Participants. Nine adults (4 men, 5 women) were asked to review the checklist and provide feedback on whether items were relevant, comprehensive, and easy to understand. Intervention. A search for literature examining the causes of falls that focused on home hazards or behaviours was conducted, and causes were extracted. Using the combined list of home hazards, a draft checklist was created. The participants were asked to pilot the checklist through their home. Primary and Secondary Outcome. An initial iteration of the checklist was modified to reduce redundancy (by grouping certain items together), improve usability (by adding a “not applicable category”), and improve readability (by removing double-barrelled questions or rewriting certain items). Results. This process resulted in 74 items in 10 areas. On average, it took 10 minutes for the participants to complete the home walk-through while filling out the checklist. Conclusion. The fall hazard-home checklist is a new checklist designed to identify home fall hazards with the intended use of being either administered by self-report through memory or supported by a walk-about, and that could potentially be completed by a patient who has incurred a fall, fracture, a family member, or caregiver. Given the expense of home hazard assessments that involve a home visit, the validity of this method of detection warrants further investigation.
Changes to Biceps and Supraspinatus Tendons in Response to a Progressive Maximal Treadmill-Based Propulsion Aerobic Fitness Test in Manual Wheelchair Users: A Quantitative Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Study
Relevance. To develop personalized cardiorespiratory fitness training programs among manual wheelchair users and assess their impact over time, the completion of a performance-based maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test is required. However, these tests could potentially increase the risk exposure for the development of upper limb secondary musculoskeletal impairments. Hence, finding an equilibrium between the need to measure aerobic fitness and the increased risk of developing secondary musculoskeletal impairments when completing performance-based test is fundamental. Objective. To investigate if the completion of a recently developed treadmill-based wheelchair propulsion maximal progressive workload incremental test alters the integrity of the long head of the biceps and supraspinatus tendons using musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging biomarkers. Method. Fifteen manual wheelchair users completed the incremental test. Ultrasound images of the long head of the biceps and supraspinatus tendons were recorded before, immediately after, and 48 hours after the completion of the test using a standardized protocol. Geometric, composition, and texture-related ultrasound biomarkers characterized tendon integrity. Results. Participants propelled during with the majority () having reached at least the eighth stage of the ; ). All ultrasound biomarkers characterizing tendon integrity, measured in the longitudinal and transversal planes for both tendons, were similar ( to 1.000) across measurement times. Conclusion. The performance of the motorized treadmill wheelchair propulsion test to assess aerobic fitness produced no changes to ultrasound biomarkers of the biceps or supraspinatus tendons. Hence, there was no ultrasound imaging evidence of a maladaptive response due to overstimulation in these tendons immediately after and 48 hours after the performance of the test.
Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Slow Breathing in Supine Position
The purpose of this study is to clarify cardiac autonomic nervous system activity during slow breathing exercises in a supine position. Eighteen healthy young males were participated. Heart rate variability was measured for 5 minutes at rest, 5 minutes at slow breathing, and then 5 minutes at rest. As a result, the LF/HF ratio increased with slow breathing, but HF value did not change. We suggest that the increased LF/HF ratio may be due to increased airway resistance. Cardiac autonomic nervous system activity during slow breathing in the supine position was revealed.