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Methods of 10-Meter Walk Test and Repercussions for Reliability Obtained in Typically Developing Children
Introduction. Research and clinical settings use the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) to measure locomotor capacity with considerable methodological diversity. Comparison between healthy and disabled children is frequent; however, the reproducibility of 10MWT using different methods is unknown. Objectives. This study analysed intrasubject, test-retest reliability, and agreement of four methods of 10MWT, exploring the influence of pace, acceleration-deceleration phases, and anthropometric measurements when calculating mean velocity. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 120 typical children, both sexes, aged 6, 8, 10, and 12 ( for each age). The mean times and velocities of the path (10 m) and middle path (6 m) obtained at a self-selected and fast pace were analysed. Initial assessment and another after seven days recorded three measurements per method (sV6 = self-selected pace and 6 m; sV10 = self-selected pace and 10 m; fV6 = fast pace and 6 m; fV10 = fast pace and 10 m). Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), multiple regression, and Snedecor-F test (5% significance level) were used. Results. The fV10 method had high intrasubject reliability for all tested ages (); sV10 exhibited high intrasubject reliability for ages 6, 8, and 12 () and moderate for age 10 ().Test-retest reliability at sV6 and fV6 did not reach high ICC in any tested ages. The test-retest reliability at sV10 and fV10 was moderate for ages 6, 8, and 12 () and poor for age 10 (). There was no agreement between methods: sV6 versus sV10 (; ); fV6 versus fV10 (; ). The fV6 method versus fV10 overestimated the velocity (). Conclusions. For typical children, the method that ensured the highest intrasubject reliability used fast pace and 10 m. Moreover, test-retest reliability increased when adopting 10 m at both self-selected and fast pace. The methods were not equivalent but were related, and those that did not compute the entire pathway overestimated the results.
Immediate Effect on Ground Reaction Forces Induced by Step Training Based on Discrete Skill during Gait in Poststroke Individuals: A Pilot Study
Background/Aim. Improving walking ability, especially the step-to-step transition control, is important in individuals after stroke. Although walking is a continuous skill, the discrete skills of gait, defined as movements with a clear beginning and end, may effectively modify walking performance. This pilot study shows the immediate effects of a discrete skill-based step training on ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait in individuals with chronic hemiplegia following stroke. Methods. Twenty-two community-dwelling patients with chronic hemiplegia participated in this study. Eight participants performed only discrete-skill step training during the loading response phase, focusing on paretic hip extension movement (LR group). Another eight performed only discrete-skill step training during the preswing phase, focusing on paretic swing movement (PSw group). The remaining six were trained using both training methods, with at least 6 months in each group to washout the influence of previous training. Therefore, the final number of participants in each group was 14. The braking and propulsive forces of GRFs were measured during gait before and after 30 repetitions of the discrete-skill step training. Results. Although both groups showed a significant increase in stride length, walking speed was increased only in the LR group. The PSw group showed an increase in braking forces of both sides without any change in propulsion. In the LR group, paretic braking impulse did not change, while nonparetic propulsion increased. Conclusion. The discrete-skill step training during loading response phase induced an increase in nonparetic propulsion, resulting in increased walking speed. This study provides a clear understanding of immediate effects of the discrete-skill step training in patients with chronic stroke and helps improve interventions in long-term rehabilitation.
Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation and Dysphagia Rehabilitation: A Narrative Review
Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) was introduced as a modality for dysphagia rehabilitation more than a decade ago. The underlying premise of this modality is improving the structural movements and enhancing neural activation based on stimulation-induced muscle contractions. However, divisive evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of this treatment modality. This manuscript reviews current evidence regarding the effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) on clinical and physiological aspects of swallowing function. Furthermore, this narrative review delineates the knowledge gap in this area and recommends future research roadmap. This review gives a comprehensive picture regarding current knowledge of TES to practicing speech and language pathologists and interested researchers. It highlights the need for more robust studies in this area. It also encourages researchers to focus more on the physiologic studies to understand the physiologic underpinning behind this treatment modality.
Knowledge of Knee Osteoarthritis and Its Impact on Health in the Middle East: Are They Different to Countries in the Developed World? A Qualitative Study
Knowledge of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and its management options affects adherence to treatment, symptoms, and function. Many sociocultural differences exist between Jordan, as a representative of the Middle East, and the developed world which might influence the knowledge of the pathology and its impact on health. Objectives. To explore the knowledge of the pathology and the experience of people diagnosed with knee OA living in Jordan. Methods. Qualitative study design using a triangulation method of both focus groups and in-depth semistructured interviews. Fourteen participants were included (13 females and one male). One focus group and seven in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed. Framework analysis was used, and data were mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. Results. The themes are as follows: (1) body functions and structures included two subthemes: physical changes and psychological impact; (2) activity limitation and participation restriction included three subthemes: factors influencing the activities, cultural and social perspectives to activity limitation, and participation restriction; (3) personal factors included three subthemes: knowledge and personal interpretation of disease process, knowledge of management options to relief symptoms, and influence of personal factors on activity and participation; and (4) environmental factors included three subthemes: service delivery process, ineffective communication across the care pathway, and facilitators and barriers. Conclusions. Knowledge of the disease was lacking as a consequence of inappropriate service delivery and culture. Activity limitations and participation restrictions are similar in Jordan to other cultures in addition to limitations in religious, employment, and transportation activities. The results demonstrate that the effect of knee OA varies among different cultures and highlight the role of healthcare professionals worldwide in understanding the impact of culture on health. They also increase the awareness of healthcare professionals, specifically in Jordan, on the limitations in delivered services and the importance of education.
A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes between Early Cervical Spine Stabilizer Training and Usual Care in Individuals following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion
Study Design. Randomized clinical trial. Objectives. Early physical therapy (PT) with specific stabilization training has been shown to benefit individuals after lumbar spinal surgery but has not been studied in patients after cervical spine surgery. The primary purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes between early cervical spine stabilizer (ECS) training and usual care (UC) in patients after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery. The secondary purpose was to determine test-retest reliability of strength and endurance tests of cervical spinal stabilizers in this patient population. Methods. Forty participants who were scheduled for ACDF surgery were randomized into either the ECS group or the UC group. After surgery, participants received their assigned group intervention during their hospital stay and continued their assigned intervention for 12 weeks. All participants had phone follow-ups twice during the first 6 weeks to address questions or problems. Clinical outcome measures including pain level using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), disability level using the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Craniocervical Flexor Strength (CCF-S), and Craniocervical Flexor Endurance (CCF-E) were collected three times: before surgery and 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. Test-retest reliability was assessed in the first 10 participants. Results. There was no significant interaction between the groups over time for any of the outcome measures. However, all participants made significant improvements in all four outcome measures at 6 and 12 weeks post surgery. The results showed good-to-excellent test-retest reliability for the CCF-S and CCF-E tests. Conclusions. Both ECS training and UC resulted in the same amount of improvement at 6 and 12 weeks; therefore, both therapy approaches appear to have similar and positive effects on patients in their first 3 months of recovery after ACDF. Both the CCF-S and CCF-E tests can be used reliably to assess the strength and endurance of the cervical spinal stabilizers for patients after ACDF surgery. The study was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov (NIH, U.S. National Library of Medicine, identifier # NCT01519115) Protocol Registration system.
Participants’ Perspectives of a Primary Exercise-Based Prevention Program for Cardiac Patients: A Prepost Intervention Qualitative Case Study
Perseverance in exercise-based, cardiovascular disease prevention programs is generally very low. The purpose of this case study is to understand the experience of participants enrolled in a 6-month primary and secondary exercise-focused, cardiovascular disease prevention out of hospital program. Ten participants were interviewed about their experiences at entry and after it ended 6 months later to understand the facilitators and difficulties encountered by participants in such exercise programs. Four out of ten participants completed the 6-month program. The six participants who left the program accepted to contribute to the postprogram interview. The results showed that the four participants who persevered in the program became aware of cardiac risk factors and their conditions were willing to make changes in their lifestyles to reach their objectives, felt a strong perception of self-efficacy, and felt like they belonged in the program. Both persevering and nonpersevering participants experienced many episodes of discouragement during the program and faced many barriers that interfered with their progress. Suggestions to help coping with these barriers while reinforcing self-efficacy and the sentiment of belonging are discussed.