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Rehabilitation Research and Practice
Volume 2010, Article ID 289278, 9 pages
Research Article

Repeatability of Clinical, Biomechanical, and Motor Control Profiles in People with and without Standing-Induced Low Back Pain

1School of Physical Therapy, Regis University, 3333 Regis Blvd. G-4, Denver, CO 80221, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada

Received 12 February 2010; Revised 24 May 2010; Accepted 13 June 2010

Academic Editor: Francois Prince

Copyright © 2010 Erika Nelson-Wong and Jack P. Callaghan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A major research focus is optimization of interventions for low back pain (LBP). Predisposing factors for LBP development have been previously identified. To differentiate changes in these factors with intervention, factor stability over time must be determined. Twenty-three volunteers without LBP participated in a LBP-inducing standing protocol on two separate days. Outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS) for LBP and trunk/hip muscle coactivation patterns. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to examine repeatability. Between-day repeatability of outcome measures was excellent (ICCs >0.80). Individuals were consistent in subjective LBP, with 83% reporting similar day-to-day VAS levels. Muscle co-activation patterns and LBP reports are stable measures over time for this LBP-inducing protocol. Changes in these measures following intervention can be considered to be treatment effects and are not due to natural variability. This provides support for use of this protocol in studying interventions for standing-induced LBP.