Rehabilitation Research and Practice / 2011 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

The Effect of a Restraint Reduction Program on Physical Restraint Rates in Rehabilitation Settings in Hong Kong

Table 2

(a) Sample profile of study and control sites (I)

AgeNo. of diagnosesMMSEMBIMorse fall scale

Intervention sitePreintervention phase 𝑛 = 3 9 8 Mean ± SD75.42 ± 10.713.05 ± 1.45a16.74 ± 7.0012.67 ± 5.5430.33 ± 17.13
Median/range77/31–1003/1–717/0–3013/0–2025/0–80
Postintervention phase 𝑛 = 6 1 2 Mean ± SD74.80 ± 10.573.15 ± 1.50b16.42 ± 7.1511.99 ± 5.1231.54 ± 17.13a
Median/range76/23–983/1–916/0–3013/0–2025/0–90
𝑃 0.2000.2860.3750.0160.239
Control sitePreintervention phase 𝑛 = 1 4 8 Mean ± SD59.14 ± 17.351.80 ± 1.15925.37 ± 5.2615.07 ± 3.2020.74 ± 15.45
Median/range64/17–881/1–727/0–3015/4–2015/0–80
Postintervention phase 𝑛 = 1 5 5 Mean ± SD62.90 ± 17.73c1.93 ± 1.2124.39 ± 6.5315.07 ± 3.4130.26 ± 16.91
Median/range67/15–932/1–727/4–3016/3–2025/0–75
𝑃 0.0390.2840.5830.485<.001

MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; MBI: Morse Fall Scale.
*Mann-Whitney U test, significant at 0.05.
aOne missing subject.
bThree missing subjects.
cOne missing subject.
(b) Sample profile of study and control sites (II)

Study siteControl site
Before interventionAfter intervention(X2)Before interventionAfter intervention(X2)
𝑛 = 3 9 8 % 𝑛 = 6 1 2 % 𝑃 -value 𝑛 = 1 4 8 % 𝑛 = 1 5 5 % 𝑃 -value

Gender
 M 18546.5300490.436241.95434.80.207
 F21353.5312518658.110165.2
Psychoactive drug
 Yes133.3142.30.34632000.075
 No38596.759897.714598155100
Vision
 Normal 15639.230851. 2<0.0016342.66843.90.819
 Impaired 24260.829348.88557.48756.1
Hearing
 Normal33082.950283.50.72913188.513285.20.389
 Impaired6817.19916.51711.52314.8
Restraint status
 Nevera27067.830950.5<0.00114295.913486.50.01
 Intermittentb3691472442.795.8
 Continuousc9223.115224.821.4127.7
Type of restraint
 Lap table614811839.20.3340029.50.008
 Vest118.7268.6116.7314.3
 Wrist0010.3
 Pelvic belt233.300
 Waist belt233.3314.3
 Mittens116.700
 Others (bed rails)5543.315651.8001361.9
History of fall in hospital
 Yes20.5610.40274.7106.50.515
 No39699.56069914195.314593.5

𝑃 -values: a versus b in Control site: <0.001, b versus c: <0.001, a versus c: <0.001.
𝑃 -values: a versus b in Study site: <0.001, b versus c: <0.001, a versus c: 0.013.

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