Table 3: Results of depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) and brief COPE.

DASS[ 𝑛 , (%)]

DASS Depression
  Normal25 (56.8%)
  Mild9 (20.5)
  Moderate4 (9.1%)
  Severe3 (6.8%)
  Extreme3 (6.8%)
DASS Anxiety
  Normal26 (59.1%)
  Mild6 (13.6%)
  Moderate4 (9.1%)
  Severe4 (9.1%)
  Extreme4 (9.1%)
DASS Stress
  Normal33 (75.0%)
  Mild6 (13.6%)
  Moderate2 (4.5%)
  Severe3 (6.8%)
  Extreme0

Brief COPE variablesMean (SD)Range

Problem focused coping strategies
Active coping (2–8)6.3 (1.6)2–8
Planning (2–8)6.2 (1.7)2–8
Positive reframing (2–8)6.0 (1.8)2–8
Acceptance (2–8)7.4 (1.1)2–8
Humour (2–8)5.0 (2.4)2–8
Religion (2–8)4.0 (2.3)2–8
Using emotional support (2–8)6.3 (1.5)3–8
Using instrumental support (2–8)5.7 (1.7)2–8
Emotion-focused coping strategies
Self-distraction (2–8)5.7 (2.0)2–8
Denial (2–8)2.9 (1.4)2–8
Venting (2–8)3.6 (1.6)2–8
Substance use (2–8)2.7 (1.5)2–8
Behavioural disengagement (2–8)2.8 (1.4)2–7
Self-blame (2–8)2.7 (1.0)2–6