Evaluation of Mucous Retention Cyst Prevalence on Digital Panoramic Radiographs in the Local Population of IranRead the full article
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Comparison of Intracranial and Extracranial Carotid Artery Calcifications between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients and Healthy Individuals: A Combined Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Polysomnographic Study
Purpose. This study aimed to compare the presence and grades of intra- and extracranial carotid artery calcifications between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-OSA patients. Methods. CBCT records of 190 patients (95 OSA patients and 95 non-OSA patients) were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patient demographic data, including age and gender for both study groups and body mass index (BMI), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) for OSA patients were recorded. The presence of intra- and extracranial carotid artery calcifications and the number of calcifications were noted according to the grading scale. Results. There was a significant difference in carotid artery calcifications between OSA patients and healthy individuals. A total of 56.8% of the OSA patients showed at least one carotid artery calcification, whereas 13.8% of healthy individuals showed at least one carotid artery calcification (). For intracranial calcifications, OSA patients showed a significantly higher prevalence than healthy individuals (). The results showed that as the apnea-hypopnea index increases in OSA patients, the incidence of carotid artery calcification increases simultaneously. AHI > 30 patients showed the highest percentage of calcifications. Conclusion. In conclusion, OSA patients showed a higher prevalence of calcified carotid artery calcifications than healthy individuals. The results can be interpreted as the higher AHI, the more carotid artery calcification occurs. As these lesions can be a precursor of future strokes, 3D MDCT/CBCT images should evaluate meticulously not only extracranial but also intracranially, especially in OSA patients.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Trends in Cardiothoracic Imaging
Introduction. Here, we evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on utilization of cardiothoracic imaging studies. Methods. We queried our radiology record system to retrospectively identify numbers of specific key cardiothoracic imaging studies for five years prior and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate changes in the number of exams in 2020 and 2021 compared to 2019. Results. Five-year retrospective analysis demonstrated progressive increases in nearly all cross-sectional studies. In 2020, daily chest radiograph utilization decreased with an overall number of daily radiographs of 406 (SD = 73.1) compared to 480 per day in 2019 (SD = 82.6) ( < 0.0001). Portable radiograph utilization was increased in 2020 averaging 320 (SD = 68.2) films daily in 2020 compared to 266 (SD = 29.1) in 2019 ( < 0.0001). Utilization of thoracic CT was decreased during the pandemic, with 21.8 (SD = 12.9) studies daily compared to 52.0 (SD = 21.4) ( < 0.0001) studies daily in 2019. Cardiac imaging utilization was also substantially decreased in 2020 compared to 2019, averaging a total of 3.8 (SD = 3.2) versus 10.8 (SD = 6.6) studies daily and 0.88 (SD = 1.7) versus 2.5 (SD = 2.3) studies daily for CT and MRI, respectively. Evaluation of cardiothoracic imaging for the subsequent 18 months after New York’s entry to phase I recovery in June 2020 demonstrated that by one year after the emergence of COVID-19 imaging utilization had recovered to prepandemic levels. Cardiac imaging continued to increase throughout the chronic phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, reaching almost twice the prepandemic levels by the end of 2021. Conclusion. COVID-19 has had far-reaching effects on medicine and public health. Here, we demonstrate decreases in all cross-sectional cardiothoracic imaging studies, closely mirroring findings in other fields during the height of the pandemic, which have since rebounded.
Radiological Cardiothoracic Ratio as a Potential Marker of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Assessed by Echocardiography
The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of the radiological cardiothoracic ratio as a potential marker of left ventricular hypertrophy assessed by echocardiography. The study included 96 patients (mean age: 49.52 ± 9.64 years). Chest radiograph in the PA projection and echocardiography were performed. In CR the measurement of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) was performed. Assuming CTR > 0.50, heart silhouette enlargement was diagnosed. In echocardiography, four types of left ventricular geometry were assessed: normal geometry (NG), concentric remodeling (CR), concentric hypertrophy (CH), and eccentric hypertrophy (EH). It was shown that patients with an enlarged heart silhouette were characterized by a significantly more frequent occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on echocardiography than patients with a nonenlarged heart silhouette. In the subgroup of patients with LVH compared to the subgroup of patients with normal left ventricular geometry, CTR values are statistically significantly higher, and heart silhouette enlargement is significantly more frequent. The criterion “CTR > 0.49” estimates LVH with a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 82.7%, which translates into a high accuracy of 84.4%. By analyzing the prediction of left ventricular geometry types, high accuracy of CH prediction was obtained using the “CTR > 0.49” criterion of 80.2% (with a high sensitivity of 84.0% and a satisfactory specificity of 60.0%) and a high accuracy of EH prediction using the “CTR > 0.52” criterion of 71.9% (with high sensitivity 80.5% and low specificity 36.8%), as well as low CR prediction accuracy of only 57.3% (with low sensitivity 36.7%, even if high specificity 78.7%). In summary, the radiological cardiothoracic ratio may be a moderate marker of left ventricular hypertrophy assessed according to standard echocardiographic criteria, provided that its cut-off point is standardized in each population of subjects.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Trauma CT Imaging
Purpose. The goal of this study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures on the volume, rate, and type of trauma presenting to the emergency department (ED) by using trauma-initiated CT studies to capture patient data. Materials and Methods. We performed a retrospective observational study comparing patients undergoing CT scans for trauma during the 1st and 2nd lockdown periods compared to corresponding prepandemic months. During two lockdown periods, public places such as restaurants, libraries, parks, and shops across the province were shut down. Government-led messaging advised that people should stay at home and practice social distancing. The rate of trauma-initiated CT scans and the proportion of different types of traumas were compared between time periods. Results. There was no significant difference in overall trauma-initiated CT scans between the prepandemic and pandemic levels. Motor vehicle collision (MVC) cases decreased from 18.2% to 15.6% during the first lockdown period ( = 0.049) and also reduced from 29.1% to 25.2% during the second lockdown period ( = 0.013). Trauma from falls increased from 19.1% to 27.5% ( = 0.036) during the first lockdown, despite no significant change during the 2nd lockdown. Furthermore, the percentage of stab injuries increased from 25.0% to 38.9% while blunt trauma decreased from 68.5% to 54.3% during two lockdowns ( = 0.015). Conclusion. The total number of trauma-initiated CT scans did not significantly decrease during the lockdown periods. Stabbings and falls increased during lockdown periods while MVCs and blunt trauma decreased.
Volumetric Analysis of the Jaws in Skeletal Class I and III Patients with Different Facial Divergence Using CBCT Imaging
Aim. The main objective was to evaluate any possible maxillary or mandibular volumetric difference between hyperdivergent skeletal Class III (CIII), normodivergent skeletal CIII, hypodivergent skeletal CIII, and normodivergent skeletal Class I (CI) patients using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Also, the secondary objective was to investigate any possible correlation between CBCT-derived lateral cephalometric variables and the mandibular and maxillary volumes (MdV and MxV, respectively). Materials and Methods. 80 CBCT images of patients between 18 and 32 years of age were taken with one CBCT imaging device (Scanora 3D®, Soredex, Tuusula, Finland). The sample consisted of four groups: 20 hypodivergent skeletal CIII (11 males and 9 females), 20 normodivergent skeletal CIII (7 males and 13 females), 20 hyperdivergent skeletal CIII (8 males and 12 females), and 20 normodivergent skeletal CI (5 males and 15 females). The volumes of both jaws and the ratio of MxV/MdV were obtained using Mimics™ 19 software (Materialise, NV, Belgium), and 2D variables were obtained from CBCT-derived lateral cephalogram using AudaxCeph™ software (Orthodontic software suite, Ljubljana, Slovenia). One-way ANOVA test and Kruskal–Wallis analysis were employed to detect any possible significant difference between the volumetric variables, whereas Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients were calculated to detect any possible relationship between the 2D variables and the volumetric measurements. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the maxillary volume or maxillary/mandibular ratio between the four groups ( and 0.432, respectively). There was a significant difference in MdV between CIII hypodivergent (higher mean) and CIII hyperdivergent (). There were some correlations between the MdV and 2D variables in the four studied groups especially in the posterior facial height (S-Go) and the facial depth (N-Go). There were some weaker correlations between the MxV and some 2D variables in the CIII hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Conclusions. The mandibular volume of the Class III hypodivergent patient was significantly greater than that of the Class III hyperdivergent patients. Correlations between the maxillary or mandibular volumes were found with some of the 2D variables. The volume of both jaws increased when the maxillofacial complex moved toward a horizontal growth pattern.
The Importance of Radiological Patterns and Small Airway Disease in Long-Term Follow-Up of Postacute COVID-19: A Preliminary Study
Postacute COVID-19 has become a relevant public health problem, and radiological and pulmonary function tests are tools that help physicians in decision-making. The objectives of this study are to characterize the findings and patterns on a chest radiograph (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) that are most important in the postacute phase and to evaluate how these changes correlate with clinical data, spirometry, and impulse oscillometry (IOS). This was a retrospective study of 29 patients who underwent CXR, CT, spirometry, and IOS. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years and persistent respiratory symptoms after four weeks. The exclusion criteria were radiological exams with low technical quality and non-COVID-19 acute lung diseases. The inferential analysis was carried out with the chi-square (χ2) or Fisher’s exact test to evaluate the interrelationships between the clinical and COVID-19 variables according to spirometry, IOS, CT, and CXR. In our sample, 19 patients were women (65.5%). The predominance of abnormal spirometry was associated with CT’s moderate/severe degree of involvement ( = 0.017; 69.2%, CI 95%: 44.1%–94.3%). There was no significant association between IOS and tomographic and radiographic parameters. A significant association was found between the classifications of the moderate/severe and normal/mild patterns on CT and CXRs ( = 0.003; 93.3%, CI 95%: 77.8%–100%). Patients with moderate/severe impairment on CXR were associated with a higher frequency of hospitalization ( = 0.033; 77.8%, CI 95%: 58.6%–97.0%) and had significantly more moderate/severe classifications in the acute phase than the subgroup with normal/mild impairment on CXR ( = 0.017; 88.9%, CI 95%: 74.4%–100%). In conclusion, the results of this study show that CXR is a relevant examination and may be used to detect nonspecific alterations during the follow-up of post-COVID-19 patients. Small airway disease is an important finding in postacute COVID-19 syndrome, and we postulate a connection between this pattern and the persistently low-level inflammatory state of the lung.