Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Radiology Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 808795, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/808795
Research Article

On the Use of Molecular Weight Cutoff Cassettes to Measure Dynamic Relaxivity of Novel Gadolinium Contrast Agents: Example Using Hyaluronic Acid Polymer Complexes in Phosphate-Buffered Saline

1Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
2Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025, USA

Received 18 May 2011; Accepted 2 September 2011

Academic Editor: Sotirios Bisdas

Copyright © 2011 Nima Kasraie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Idée, M. Port, I. Raynal, M. Schaefer, S. Le Greneur, and C. Corot, “Clinical and biological consequences of transmetallation induced by contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging: a review,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 563–576, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Caravan, J. J. Ellison, T. J. McMurry, and R. B. Lauffer, “Gadolinium(III) chelates as MRI contrast agents: structure, dynamics, and applications,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 99, no. 9, pp. 2293–2352, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Pintaske, P. Martirosian, H. Graf et al., “Relaxivity of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Magnevist), gadobutrol (Gadovist), and gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) in human blood plasma at 0.2, 1.5, and 3 Tesla,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 213–221, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. C. Brasch, “New directions in the development of MR imaging contrast media,” Radiology, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. N. Raymond and V. C. Pierre, “Next generation, high relaxivity gadolinium MRI agents,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. E. Merbach and É. Tóth, The Chemistry of Contrast Agents in Medical Magnetic Resonance Imaging, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  7. E. R. Morris, D. A. Rees, and E. J. Welsh, “Conformation and dynamic interactions in hyaluronate solutions,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 383–400, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Gouin, M. V. V. Grayeb, and F. M. Winnik, “Gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid hyaluronan conjugates: preparation, properties and applications,” Macromolecular Symposia, vol. 186, pp. 105–110, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. F. Bellin and A. J. Van Der Molen, “Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: an overview,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 160–167, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. A. Bluemke, D. L. Kraitchman, A. Heldman, B. B. Chin, and C. Steinert, “Optimal characterization of myocardial perfusion with angioMARK,” Academic Radiology, vol. 9, no. 1, p. S78, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. F. G. C. Geraldes, A. M. Urbano, M. C. Alpoim et al., “Preparation, physico-chemical characterization, and relaxometry studies of various gadolinium(III)-DTPA-bis(amide) derivatives as potential magnetic resonance contrast agents,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 401–420, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. A. Williams and H. Rapoport, “Synthesis of enantiomerically pure diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid analogues. L-phenylalanine as the educt for substitution at the central acetic acid,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1151–1158, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. N. Munshi and A. K. Dey, “Spectrophotometric determination of lanthanides using 4-(2-Pyridylazo) resorcinol,” Mikrochimica Acta, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 751–756, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. A. Rinck and R. N. Muller, “Field strength and dose dependence of contrast enhancement by gadolinium-based MR contrast agents,” European Radiology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 998–1004, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. X. Wen, E. F. Jackson, R. E. Price et al., “Synthesis and characterization of poly(L-glutamic acid) gadolinium chelate: a new biodegradable MRI contrast agent,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1408–1415, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. N. Muller, L. Vander Elst, P. A. Rinck et al., “The importance of nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles in MRI contrast media development,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 23, supplement 1, pp. S229–S231, 1988. View at Google Scholar