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Radiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 815729, 9 pages
Research Article

Parameter Optimization for Quantitative Signal-Concentration Mapping Using Spoiled Gradient Echo MRI

UCLA Department of Radiology, UCLA Center for Health Sciences, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

Received 15 April 2012; Revised 25 August 2012; Accepted 31 August 2012

Academic Editor: Sotirios Bisdas

Copyright © 2012 Gasser Hathout and Neema Jamshidi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Rationale and Objectives. Accurate signal to tracer concentration maps are critical to quantitative MRI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and optimize spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) MR sequences for the use of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA) as a kinetic tracer. Methods. Water-gadolinium phantoms were constructed for a physiologic range of gadolinium concentrations. Observed and calculated SPGR signal to concentration curves were generated. Using a percentage error determination, optimal pulse parameters for signal to concentration mapping were obtained. Results. The accuracy of the SPGR equation is a function of the chosen MR pulse parameters, particularly the time to repetition (TR) and the flip angle (FA). At all experimental values of TR, increasing FA decreases the ratio between observed and calculated signals. Conversely, for a constant FA, increasing TR increases this ratio. Using optimized pulse parameter sets, it is possible to achieve excellent accuracy (approximately 5%) over a physiologic range of concentration tracer concentrations. Conclusion. Optimal pulse parameter sets exist and their use is essential for deriving accurate signal to concentration curves in quantitative MRI.