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Volume 2019, Article ID 8791010, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8791010
Research Article

Manufacture and Characterization of Heat-Resistant and Heat-Insulating New Composites Based on Resol Resin–Carbon Fibers–Perlite for the Built Heritage Protection

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens 9 Heroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, 157 73, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to George Soupionis; rg.autn.lartnec@sinoipuosg

Received 5 July 2018; Revised 22 October 2018; Accepted 3 January 2019; Published 21 February 2019

Guest Editor: Elisabetta Zendri

Copyright © 2019 George Soupionis and Loukas Zoumpoulakis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Composite materials were created for usage as reinforcement and to protect the building envelope based on today’s global conditions such as climate change. Composite materials were manufactured using phenol-formaldehyde resin (case of resol) as a matrix, carbon fiber as reinforcement (7.5%), and perlite (10%) as a low thermal conductivity component, to combine high mechanical properties with good heat resistance and good thermal insulation properties. The structure of these new materials was examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis (SEM-EDS). The addition of perlite (10%) in the resite matrix (without fibers) increased the flexural and shear strength of the composite materials. On the other hand, the composite materials with fiber reinforcement show that the perlite reduces the flexural and shear strength due to the additional interfaces which were created. During heat treatment at 473 K, carbon fibers had the smallest weight loss followed by perlite while the resite matrix (i.e., the cured resol) shows the greatest weight loss. It is noted that the role of perlite is to stabilize the mass of the resite matrix during heat treatment. The composite material with carbon fibers and perlite is a heat-resistant material with only 2% weight loss at 473 K for 1 hour and shows a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, making it a new material in the direction of heat-insulating materials.