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Research Article

Label-Free Identification of Early Stages of Breast Ductal Carcinoma via Multiphoton Microscopy

Table 1

MPM identifiable features of normal breast tissue, ADH, low-grade DCIS, and high-grade DCIS-MI.

Breast tissue sampleTPEF signalSHG signal
NormalTwo layers of epithelial cells line in the ductCurly and rich collagen fibers in the stromal
Basement membrane outline is clearly visible and complete

ADHSmall-scale epithelial cells proliferate in the ductThe basement membrane remains intact but significantly enlarged
Collagen around the basement membrane becomes fine as the duct expands
No significant change in the morphology of the collagen in the stromal, but the collagen density is reduced
Complete involvement of fewer than 2 ducts or <2 mm in extent
Low-grade DCISSmall, uniform cells with generally rounded nuclei that are evenly spaced cells, proliferate in the ducts
A large number of proliferating cells involve more than two ducts or involve large ducts >2 mm in diameter

High-grade DCIS-MILarge cells with distinct nucleoli, significant nuclear abnormalities, proliferate in the duct and stromalSome basement membranes remain intact, but some basement membranes are no longer intact
The collagen bundles in the stromal become straight and sparse
A large amount of lymphocyte infiltration and a small amount of malignant cell infiltrate in the stroma