Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth and the Orbicularis Oris Muscle: How Do They Behave When Exposed to a Proinflammatory Stimulus?Read the full article
Stem Cells International publishes papers in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal publishes basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Chief Editor, Professor Li, has a background in cardiac stem cell transplantation, using young stem cells to promote tissue repair following injury to rejuvenate the aged individual, and the development of biomaterials that can easily integrate into damaged heart tissue.
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Oral Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells: The Immunomodulatory Masters
Oral mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are renowned in the field of tissue engineering/regeneration for their multilineage differentiation potential and easy acquisition. These cells encompass the periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs), the dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPSCs), the stem/progenitor cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), the gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (GMSCs), the stem/progenitor cells from the apical papilla (SCAP), the dental follicle stem/progenitor cells (DFSCs), the bone marrow mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BM-MSCs) from the alveolar bone proper, and the human periapical cyst-mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs). Apart from their remarkable regenerative potential, oral MSCs possess the capacity to interact with an inflammatory microenvironment. Although inflammation might affect the properties of oral MSCs, they could inversely exert a multitude of immunological actions to the local inflammatory microenvironment. The present review discusses the current understanding about the immunomodulatory role of oral MSCs both in periodontitis and systemic diseases, their “double-edged sword” uniqueness in inflammatory regulation, their affection of the immune system, and the underlying mechanisms, involving oral MSC-derived extracellular vesicles.
Tissue Engineering Approaches for Enamel, Dentin, and Pulp Regeneration: An Update
Stem/progenitor cells are undifferentiated cells characterized by their exclusive ability for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential. In recent years, researchers and investigations explored the prospect of employing stem/progenitor cell therapy in regenerative medicine, especially stem/progenitor cells originating from the oral tissues. In this context, the regeneration of the lost dental tissues including enamel, dentin, and the dental pulp are pivotal targets for stem/progenitor cell therapy. The present review elaborates on the different sources of stem/progenitor cells and their potential clinical applications to regenerate enamel, dentin, and the dental pulpal tissues.
Effect of Inflammation on Gingival Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells’ Proliferation and Migration through Microperforated Membranes: An In Vitro Study
Background. In the field of periodontal guided tissue regeneration, microperforated membranes have recently proved to be very promising periodontal regenerative tissue engineering tools. Regenerative periodontal approaches, employing gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in combination with these novel membranes, would occur mostly in inflamed microenvironmental conditions intraorally. This in turn entails the investigation into how inflammation would affect the proliferation as well as the migration dynamics of gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Materials and Methods. Clones of human gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (GMSCs) from inflamed gingival tissues were characterized for stem/progenitor cells’ characteristics and compared to clones of healthy human GMSCs (), to be subsequently seeded on perforated collagen-coated poly-tetra-floro-ethylene (PTFE) membranes with a pore size 0.4 and 3 microns and polycarbonic acid membranes of 8 microns pore size in Transwell systems. The population doubling time and the MTT test of both populations were determined. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as a chemoattractant in the culturing systems, and both groups were compared to their negative controls without FBS. Following 24 hours of incubation period, migrating cells were determined on the undersurface of microperforated membranes and the membrane-seeded cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results. GMSCs demonstrated all predefined stem/progenitor cell characteristics. GMSCs from inflamed gingival tissues showed significantly shorter population doubling times. GMSCs of inflamed and healthy tissues did not show significant differences in their migration abilities towards the chemoattractant, with no cellular migration observed in the absence of FBS. GMSCs from healthy gingival tissue migrated significantly better through larger micropores (8 microns). Scanning electron microscopic images proved the migratory activity of the cells through the membrane pores. Conclusions. Inflammation appears to boost the proliferative abilities of GMSCs. In terms of migration through membrane pores, GMSCs from healthy as well as inflamed gingival tissues do not demonstrate a difference in their migration abilities through smaller pore sizes, whereas GMSCs from healthy gingival tissues appear to migrate significantly better through larger micropores.
Hypoxia Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (VSMC) Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell (ADSC) by Regulating Mettl3 and Paracrine Factors
Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) is an alternative and less invasive source of mesenchymal stem cells which can be used to develop biological treatment strategies for tissue regeneration, and their therapeutic applications hinge on an understanding of their physiological characteristics. N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common chemical modification of mRNAs and has recently been revealed to play important roles in cell lineage differentiation and development. However, the role of m6A modification in the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation of ADSCs remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the expression of N6-adenosine methyltransferases (Mettl3) and demethylases (Fto and Alkbh5) and found that Mettl3 was upregulated in ADSCs undergoing vascular smooth muscle differentiation induction. Moreover, silence of Mettle3 reduced the expression level of VSMC-specific markers, including α-SMA, SM22α, calponin, and SM-MHC. Meanwhile, Mettl3 knockdown also decreased the expression of paracrine factors, including VEGF, HGF, TGF-β, GM-CSF, bFGF, and SDF-1. In addition, our results suggested that hypoxia stress promotes the ADSC differentiate into VMSCs and regulates the secretion of VEGF, HGF, TGF-β, GM-CSF, bFGF, and SDF-1 by mediating Mettl3 gene expression. These observations might contribute to novel progress in understanding the role of epitranscriptomic regulation in the VSMC differentiation of ADSCs and provide a promising perspective for new therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration.
Copper Does Not Induce Tenogenic Differentiation but Promotes Migration and Increases Lysyl Oxidase Activity in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Background. Copper belongs to the essential trace metals that play a key role in the course of cellular processes maintaining the whole body’s homeostasis. As there is a growing interest in transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into the site of injury to improve the regeneration of damaged tendons, the purpose of the study was to verify whether copper supplementation may have a positive effect on the properties of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hASCs) which potentially can contribute to improvement of tendon healing. Results. Cellular respiration of hASCs decreased with increasing cupric sulfate concentrations after 5 days of incubation. The treatment with CuSO4 did not positively affect the expression of genes associated with tenogenesis (COL1α1, COL3α1, MKX, and SCX). However, the level of COL1α1 protein, whose transcript was decreased in comparison to a control, was elevated after a 5-day exposition to 25 μM CuSO4. The content of the MKX and SCX protein in hASCs exposed to cupric sulfate was reduced compared to that of untreated control cells, and the level of the COL3α1 protein remained unchanged. The addition of cupric sulfate to hASCs’ medium increased the activity of lysyl oxidase which was positively correlated with concentration of CuSO4. Moreover, a high level of CuSO4 stimulated the action of intracellular superoxide dysmutase. The hASC secretion profile after a 5-day exposure to 50 μM cupric sulfate differed from that of untreated cells and was similar to the secretion profile of human tenocytes. Additionally, cupric sulfate increased secretion of CXCL12 in hASCs. Furthermore, the exposition to the CuSO4 significantly increased directed migration of human ASCs in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Copper sulfate supplementation can have a beneficial effect on tendon regeneration not by inducing tenogenic differentiation, but by improving the recruitment of MSCs to the site of injury, where they can secrete growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, and prevent the effects of oxidative stress at the site of inflammation, as well as improve the stabilization of collagen fibers, thereby accelerating the process of tendon healing.
Curcumin-Activated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord and Their Effects on MPTP-Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease: A New Biological Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell activated by curcumin (hUC-MSCs-CUR) on Parkinson’s disease (PD). hUC-MSCs can differentiate into many types of adult tissue cells including dopaminergic (DA) neurons. CUR could protect DA neurons from apoptosis induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Therefore, we used the hUC-MSCs activated by CUR for the treatment of PD in an animal model. Methods. The hUC-MSCs-CUR was transplanted into the MPTP-induced PD mouse models via the tail vein. We found that hUC-MSCs-CUR significantly improved the motor ability, increased the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine (DA), and Bcl-2 levels, and reduced nitric oxide synthase, Bax, and cleaved caspase 3 expression in PD mice. The supernatant of hUC-MSCs-CUR (CM-CUR) was used to stimulate the SH-SY5Y cellular model of PD; cell proliferation, differentiation, TH, and neuronal-specific marker microtubular-associated protein 2 (MAP2) expressions were examined. Results. Our data showed that CM-CUR significantly promoted cell proliferation and gradually increased TH and MAP2 expression in SH-SY5Y PD cells. The beneficial effects could be associated with significant increase of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the hUC-MSCs-CUR, which secretes many cytokines and growth factors beneficial for PD treatment. Conclusions. Transplantation of hUC-MSCs-CUR could show promise for improving the motor recovery of PD.