Article of the Year 2021
Combined Use of Chitosan and Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells to Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration In VivoRead the full article
Stem Cells International publishes papers in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal publishes basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Chief Editor Professor Li has a background in cardiac stem cell transplantation, using young stem cells to promote tissue repair following injury to rejuvenate the aged individual, and the development of biomaterials that can easily integrate into damaged heart tissue.
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Peptidoglycan-Mediated Bone Marrow Autonomic Neuropathy Impairs Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells via a NOD1-Dependent Pathway in db/db Mice
Impairment of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) contributes to the progression of vascular complications in subjects with diabetes. Very small amounts of bacterial-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) establish the bone marrow cell pool. We hypothesize that alteration of the PAMP peptidoglycan (PGN) exacerbates HSPC dysfunction in diabetes. We observed increased PGN infiltration in the bone marrow of diabetic mice. Exogenous administration of PGN selectively reduced the number of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), accompanied by impaired vasoreparative functions in db/db mouse bone marrow. We further revealed that bone marrow denervation contributed to PGN-associated HSPC dysfunction. Inhibition of NOD1 ameliorated PGN-induced bone marrow autonomic neuropathy, which significantly rejuvenated the HSPC pools and functions in vivo. These data reveal for the first time that PGN, as a critical factor on the gut-bone marrow axis, promotes bone marrow denervation and HSPC modulation in the context of diabetes.
Stem Cell Therapy and Innate Lymphoid Cells
Innate lymphoid cells have the capability to communicate with other immune cell types to coordinate the immune system functioning during homeostasis and inflammation. However, these cells behave differently at the functional level, unlike T cells, these cells do not need antigen receptors for activation because they are activated by the interaction of their receptor ligation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), T cells and NK cells have been extensively studied but very few studies are available on ILCs. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide current information related to NK and ILCs cell-based stem cell therapies and role of the stem cells in the regulation of ILCs as well. Also, the latest information on the differentiation of NK cells and ILCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells is covered in the article.
Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with Acellular Nerve Allografts Seeded with Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells
Introduction. Tissue engineering strategies have attempted to mimic regenerating axons’ environment by adding supportive types of cells other than Schwann cell to the nerve allograft. We hypothesized that allografts can be seeded with amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) to promote nerve regeneration. Methods. ANAs with AFS cells for long-gap nerve repairs were studied using a rat model. A sciatic nerve injury was created and repaired immediately with a rat acellular nerve allograft (ANA) construct alone, an ANA construct seeded with AFS cells, or with an autograft. Walking track analysis and electrophysiology were performed to document the return of motor control at 4 months post injury. Axon morphology on the nerve segments was assessed. Results. In vivo gait analysis showed that the ANA plus AFS cell group had significantly advanced recoveries in overlap distance, paw angle degree, paw drag, stance width, axis distance, and sciatic function index (SFI) compared with ANA alone. The ANA plus AFS cell group also demonstrated greater gastrocnemius compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratio, sciatic axon diameter, fiber diameter, myelin thickness, ratio (average axonal diameter (AD)/fiber diameter (FD)), and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) numbers compared to ANA. Discussion. The allograft plus AFS cell group demonstrated significantly improved functional and histological outcomes compared to allograft group alone, showing no significant difference of the nerve regeneration from the autograft group. Thus, AFS cells may be a suitable cell source to replace Schwann cells to support and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration following large-gap nerve injury.
Intracerebral Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Compounded with Recombinant Peptide Scaffold against Chronic Intracerebral Hemorrhage Model
Background. Due to the lack of effective therapies, stem cell transplantation is an anticipated treatment for chronic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and higher cell survival and engraftment are considered to be the key for recovery. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) compounded with recombinant human collagen type I scaffolds (CellSaics) have a higher potential for cell survival and engraftment compared with solo-MSCs, and we investigated the validity of intracerebral transplantation of CellSaic in a chronic ICH model. Methods. Rat CellSaics (rCellSaics) were produced by rat bone marrow-derived MSC (rBMSCs). The secretion potential of neurotrophic factors and the cell proliferation rate were compared under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. rCellSaics, rBMSCs, or saline were transplanted into the hollow cavity of a rat chronic ICH model. Functional and histological analyses were evaluated, and single-photon emission computed tomography for benzodiazepine receptors was performed to monitor sequential changes in neuronal integrity. Furthermore, human CellSaics (hCellSaics) were transplanted into a chronic ICH model in immunodeficient rats. Antibodies neutralizing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were used to elucidate its mode of action. Results. rCellSaics demonstrated a higher secretion potential of trophic factors and showed better cell proliferation in the OGD condition. Animals receiving rCellSaics displayed better neurological recovery, higher intracerebral BDNF, and better cell engraftment; they also showed a tendency for less brain atrophy and higher benzodiazepine receptor preservation. hCellSaics also promoted significant functional recovery, which was reversed by BDNF neutralization. Conclusion. Intracerebral transplantation of CellSaics enabled neurological recovery in a chronic ICH model and may be a good option for clinical application.
Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhanced Adipose-Derived Stem Cell-Mediated Angiogenesis in the Treatment of Diabetic Erectile Dysfunction through the Piezo-ERK-VEGF Axis
Objectives. Erectile dysfunction is a major comorbidity of diabetes. Stem cell transplantation is a promising method to treat diabetic erectile dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) could enhance the efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. Materials and methods. Sixty 8-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control (NC) cohort or the streptozocin-induced diabetic ED cohort, which was further subdivided into DM, ADSC, LIPUS, and ADSC+LIPUS groups. Rats in the ADSC or ADSC+LIPUS group received ADSC intracavernosal injection. Rats in the LIPUS or ADSC+LIPUS group were treated with LIPUS. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded at Day 28 after injection. The corpus cavernosum tissues were harvested and subjected to histologic analysis and ELISA. The effects of LIPUS on proliferation and cytokine secretion capacity of ADSCs were assessed in vitro. RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis were applied to predict the mechanism involved, and western blotting and ELISA were used for verification. Results. Rats in the ADSC+LIPUS group achieved significantly higher ICP and ICP/MAP ratios than those in the DM, ADSC, and LIPUS groups. In addition, the amount of cavernous endothelium and cGMP level also increased significantly in the ADSC+LIPUS group. In vitro experiments demonstrated that LIPUS promoted proliferation and cell cycle progression in ADSCs. The excretion of cytokines such as CXCL12, FGF2, and VEGF was also enhanced by LIPUS. Bioinformatic analysis based on RNA sequencing indicated that LIPUS stimulation might activate the MAPK pathway. We confirmed that LIPUS enhanced ADSC VEGF secretion through the Piezo-ERK pathway. Conclusion. LIPUS enhanced the curative effects of ADSCs on diabetic erectile dysfunction through the activation of the Piezo-ERK-VEGF pathway. ADSC transplantation combined with LIPUS could be applied as a synergistic treatment for diabetic ED.
Tailored Extracellular Vesicles: Novel Tool for Tissue Regeneration
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential part in multiple pathophysiological processes including tissue injury and regeneration because of their inherent characteristics of small size, low immunogenicity and toxicity, and capability of carrying a variety of bioactive molecules and mediating intercellular communication. Nevertheless, accumulating studies have shown that the application of EVs faces many challenges such as insufficient therapeutic efficacy, a lack of targeting capability, low yield, and rapid clearance from the body. It is known that EVs can be engineered, modified, and designed to encapsulate therapeutic cargos like proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacy. Targeted peptides, antibodies, aptamers, magnetic nanoparticles, and proteins are introduced to modify various cell-derived EVs for increasing targeting ability. In addition, extracellular vesicle mimetics (EMs) and self-assembly EV-mimicking nanocomplex are applied to improve production and simplify EV purification process. The combination of EVs with biomaterials like hydrogel, and scaffolds dressing endows EVs with long-term therapeutic efficacy and synergistically enhanced regenerative outcome. Thus, we will summarize recent developments of EV modification strategies for more extraordinary regenerative effect in various tissue injury repair. Subsequently, opportunities and challenges of promoting the clinical application of engineered EVs will be discussed.