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Stem Cells International
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 215625, 12 pages
Review Article

Clinical Application of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering

1Department of Tissue Regeneration, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, 7500 Enschede, The Netherlands
2Department of Periodontology and Biomaterials, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, 6525 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, 6500 Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Received 17 May 2010; Revised 13 July 2010; Accepted 11 September 2010

Academic Editor: J. Gimble

Copyright © 2010 Anindita Chatterjea et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The gold standard in the repair of bony defects is autologous bone grafting, even though it has drawbacks in terms of availability and morbidity at the harvesting site. Bone-tissue engineering, in which osteogenic cells and scaffolds are combined, is considered as a potential bone graft substitute strategy. Proof-of-principle for bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated in various animal models. In addition, 7 human clinical studies have so far been conducted. Because the experimental design and evaluation parameters of the studies are rather heterogeneous, it is difficult to draw conclusive evidence on the performance of one approach over the other. However, it seems that bone apposition by the grafted MSCs in these studies is observed but not sufficient to bridge large bone defects. In this paper, we discuss the published human clinical studies performed so far for bone-tissue regeneration, using culture-expanded, nongenetically modified MSCs from various sources and extract from it points of consideration for future clinical studies.