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Stem Cells International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 679171, 8 pages
Review Article

Advances in Cell Transplantation Therapy for Diseased Myocardium

1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Helsinki Meilahti Hospital, P.O. Box 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Finland
2Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland

Received 15 January 2011; Accepted 2 April 2011

Academic Editor: Wojciech Wojakowski

Copyright © 2011 Outi M. Villet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The overall objective of cell transplantation is to repopulate postinfarction scar with contractile cells, thus improving systolic function, and to prevent or to regress the remodeling process. Direct implantation of isolated myoblasts, cardiomyocytes, and bone-marrow-derived cells has shown prospect for improved cardiac performance in several animal models and patients suffering from heart failure. However, direct implantation of cultured cells can lead to major cell loss by leakage and cell death, inappropriate integration and proliferation, and cardiac arrhythmia. To resolve these problems an approach using 3-dimensional tissue-engineered cell constructs has been investigated. Cell engineering technology has enabled scaffold-free sheet development including generation of communication between cell graft and host tissue, creation of organized microvascular network, and relatively long-term survival after in vivo transplantation.