Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2012, Article ID 637836, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/637836
Review Article

Stem Cell Applications in Tendon Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

1Department of Biotherapies, Mater Medical Research Institute, Aubigny Place, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia
2Qsportsmedicine, GPO Box 96, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia

Received 17 July 2011; Revised 16 October 2011; Accepted 18 October 2011

Academic Editor: Wasim S. Khan

Copyright © 2012 Mark Young. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Praemer, S. Furner, and D. P. Rice, Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1st edition, 1999.
  2. A. Hoffmann and G. Gross, “Tendon and ligament engineering in the adult organism: mesenchymal stem cells and gene-therapeutic approaches,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 791–797, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. H. Liu, R. S. Yang, R. Al-Shaikh, and J. M. Lane, “Collagen in tendon, ligament, and bone healing: a current review,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 318, pp. 265–278, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. A. Eriksen, A. Pajala, J. Leppilahti, and J. Risteli, “Increased content of type III collagen at the rupture site of human Achilles tendon,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1352–1357, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. C. Vailas, C. M. Tipton, H. L. Laughlin, T. K. Tcheng, and R. D. Matthes, “Physical activity and hypophysectomy on the aerobic capacity of ligaments and tendons,” Journal of Applied Physiology Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 542–546, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  6. P. Kannus and L. Józsa, “Histopathological changes preceding spontaneous rupture of a tendon: a controlled study of 891 patients,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 1507–1525, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. M. Chiou, M. C. Chang, and W. H. Lo, “One-stage reconstruction of skin defect and patellar tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty: a new technique,” Journal of Arthroplasty, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 575–579, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. S. Crossett, R. K. Sinha, V. F. Sechriest, and H. E. Rubash, “Reconstruction of a ruptured patellar tendon with achilles tendon allograft following total knee arthroplasty,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 1354–1361, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Tadokoro, N. Matsui, M. Yagi, R. Kuroda, M. Kurosaka, and S. Yoshiya, “Evaluation of hamstring strength and tendon regrowth after harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1644–1650, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. M. Khan, J. L. Cook, F. Bonar, P. Harcourt, and M. Åstrom, “Histopathology of common tendinopathies: update and implications for clinical management,” Sports Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 393–408, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. L. Cook and C. R. Purdam, “Is tendon pathology a continuum? A pathology model to explain the clinical presentation of load-induced tendinopathy,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 409–416, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Maffulli, K. M. Khan, and G. Puddu, “Overuse tendon conditions: time to change a confusing terminology,” Arthroscopy, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 840–843, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Chen, A. Wang, J. Xu, and M. Zheng, “In chronic lateral epicondylitis, apoptosis and autophagic cell death occur in the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 355–362, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. M. Andres and G. A. C. Murrell, “Treatment of tendinopathy: what works, what does not, and what is on the horizon,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 466, no. 7, pp. 1539–1554, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. K. Coombes, L. Bisset, and B. Vicenzino, “Efficacy and safety of corticosteroid injections and other injections for management of tendinopathy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9754, pp. 1751–1767, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. J. De Vos, A. Weir, H. T. M. Van Schie et al., “Platelet-rich plasma injection for chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 2, pp. 144–149, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Obaid and D. Connell, “Cell therapy in tendon disorders: what is the current evidence?” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 2123–2132, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. Yin, X. Chen, J. L. Chen, and H. W. Ouyang, “Stem cells for tendon tissue engineering and regeneration,” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 689–700, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. T. Cheng, H. W. Yang, T. H. Chen, and O. K. S. Lee, “Isolation and characterization of multipotent stem cells from human cruciate ligaments,” Cell Proliferation, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 448–460, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Bi, D. Ehirchiou, T. M. Kilts et al., “Identification of tendon stem/progenitor cells and the role of the extracellular matrix in their niche,” Nature Medicine, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1219–1227, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. G. Phinney and D. J. Prockop, “Concise review: mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells: the state of transdifferentiation and modes of tissue repair—current views,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2896–2902, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. I. Caplan, “Mesenchymal stem cells: the past, the present, the future,” Cartilage, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6–9, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  23. S. C. Hung, R. R. Pochampally, S. C. Chen, S. C. Hsu, and D. J. Prockop, “Angiogenic effects of human multipotent stromal cell conditioned medium activate the PI3K-Akt pathway in hypoxic endothelial cells to inhibit apoptosis, increase survival, and stimulate angiogenesis,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 2363–2370, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. M. Ryan, F. P. Barry, J. M. Murphy, and B. P. Mahon, “Mesenchymal stem cells avoid allogeneic rejection,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 2, article 8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Le Blanc, “HLA expression and immunologic properties of differentiated and undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 890–896, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Toma, M. F. Pittenger, K. S. Cahill, B. J. Byrne, and P. D. Kessler, “Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to a cardiomyocyte phenotype in the adult murine heart,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. X. P. Huang, Z. Sun, Y. Miyagi et al., “Differentiation of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells induces immunogenicity and limits their long-term benefits for myocardial repair,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 23, pp. 2419–2429, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. K. S. Chong, A. D. Ang, J. C. H. Goh et al., “Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells influence early tendon-healing in a rabbit Achilles tendon model,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 74–81, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. A. Awad, G. P. Boivin, M. R. Dressler, F. N. L. Smith, R. G. Young, and D. L. Butler, “Repair of patellar tendon injuries using a cell-collagen composite,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 420–431, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. T. Harris, D. L. Butler, G. P. Boivin, J. B. Florer, E. J. Schantz, and R. J. Wenstrup, “Mesenchymal stem cells used for rabbit tendon repair can form ectopic bone and express alkaline phosphatase activity in constructs,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 998–1003, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. L. Butler, N. Juncosa-Melvin, G. P. Boivin et al., “Functional tissue engineering for tendon repair: a multidisciplinary strategy using mesenchymal stem cells, bioscaffolds, and mechanical stimulation,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. W. Ouyang, J. C. H. Goh, A. Thambyah, S. H. Teoh, and E. H. Lee, “Knitted poly-lactide-co-glycolide scaffold loaded with bone marrow stromal cells in repair and regeneration of rabbit achilles tendon,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 431–439, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Y. H. Soon, A. Hassan, J. H. P. Hui, J. C. H. Goh, and E. H. Lee, “An analysis of soft tissue allograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a rabbit model: a short-term study of the use of mesenchymal stem cells to enhance tendon osteointegration,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 962–971, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. J. Ju, T. Muneta, H. Yoshimura, H. Koga, and I. Sekiya, “Synovial mesenchymal stem cells accelerate early remodeling of tendon-bone healing,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 332, no. 3, pp. 469–478, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. Tomita, K. Yasuda, S. Mikami, T. Sakai, S. Yamazaki, and H. Tohyama, “Comparisons of intraosseous graft healing between the doubled flexor tendon graft and the bone-patellar tendon-bone graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction,” Arthroscopy, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 461–476, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. W. Ouyang, S. L. Toh, J. Goh, T. E. Tay, and K. Moe, “Assembly of bone marrow stromal cell sheets with knitted poly (L-lactide) scaffold for engineering ligament analogs,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research B, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 264–271, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  37. X. Wei, Z. Mao, Y. Hou et al., “Local administration of TGFß-1/VEGF165 gene-transduced bone mesenchymal stem cells for Achilles allograft replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 406, no. 2, pp. 204–210, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. L. Lacitignola, A. Crovace, G. Rossi, and E. Francioso, “Cell therapy for tendinitis, experimental and clinical report,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 32, supplement 1, pp. S33–S38, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Crovace, L. Lacitignola, R. De Siena, G. Rossi, and E. Francioso, “Cell therapy for tendon repair in horses: an experimental study,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 31, supplement 1, pp. 281–283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Hankemeier, M. Keus, J. Zeichen et al., “Modulation of proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells by fibroblast growth factor 2: potential implications for tissue engineering of tendons and ligaments,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 41–49, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. J. Dyson, “Medical management of superficial digital flexor tendonitis: a comparative study in 219 horses (1992–2000),” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 415–419, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Pacini, S. Spinabella, L. Trombi et al., “Suspension of bone marrow-derived undifferentiated mesenchymal stromal cells for repair of superficial digital flexor tendon in race horses,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 2949–2955, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Del Bue, S. Riccò, R. Ramoni, V. Conti, G. Gnudi, and S. Grolli, “Equine adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet concentrates: their association in vitro and in vivo,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 32, supplement 1, pp. S51–S55, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. K. W. Smith and P. M. Webbon, “Harnessing the stem cell for the treatment of tendon injuries: heralding a new dawn?” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 582–584, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. Smith, N. Young, J. Dudhia et al., “Stem cell therapy for tendon disease—experimental and clinical results in naturally occurring tendinopathy in the horse,” in Proceedings of the International Scientific Tendinopathy Symposium, p. 1, Umea, Sweden, 2010.
  46. P. K. Beredjiklian, M. Favata, J. S. Cartmell, C. L. Flanagan, T. M. Crombleholme, and L. J. Soslowsky, “Regenerative versus reparative healing in tendon: a study of biomechanical and histological properties in fetal sheep,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1143–1152, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. X. Chen, X. H. Song, Z. Yin et al., “Stepwise differentiation of human embryonic stem cells promotes tendon regeneration by secreting fetal tendon matrix and differentiation factors,” Stem Cells, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1276–1287, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. E. Watts, A. E. Yeager, O. V. Kopyov, and A. J. Nixon, “Fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells improve healing in a large animal flexor tendonitis model,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 2, no. 1, article 4, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. H. Tempfer, A. Wagner, R. Gehwolf et al., “Perivascular cells of the supraspinatus tendon express both tendon- and stem cell-related markers,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 733–741, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. Cao, Y. Liu, W. Liu, Q. Shan, S. D. Buonocore, and L. Cui, “Bridging tendon defects using autologous tenocyte engineered tendon in a hen model,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. M. Chen, C. Willers, J. Xu, A. Wang, and M. H. Zheng, “Autologous tenocyte therapy using porcine-derived bioscaffolds for massive rotator cuff defect in rabbits,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1479–1491, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Chen, Q. Yu, B. Wu et al., “Autologous tenocyte therapy for experimental achilles tendinopathy in a rabbit model,” Tissue Engineering A, vol. 17, no. 15-16, pp. 2037–2048, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. M. Zheng et al., “Autologous cell therapy for tendon tissue reconstruction,” in press.
  54. D. Deng, W. Liu, F. Xu et al., “In vitro tendon engineering using human dermal fibroblasts,” National Medical Journal of China, vol. 88, no. 13, pp. 914–918, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Liu, B. Chen, D. Deng, F. Xu, L. Cui, and Y. Cao, “Repair of tendon defect with dermal fibroblast engineered tendon in a porcine model,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 775–788, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. Deng, W. Liu, F. Xu et al., “Engineering human neo-tendon tissue in vitro with human dermal fibroblasts under static mechanical strain,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 35, pp. 6724–6730, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Connell, A. Datir, F. Alyas, and M. Curtis, “Treatment of lateral epicondylitis using skin-derived tenocyte-like cells,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 293–298, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Mishra and T. Pavelko, “Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1774–1778, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. C. Peerbooms, J. Sluimer, D. J. Bruijn, and T. Gosens, “Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-year follow-up,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 255–262, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. W. Clarke, F. Alyas, T. Morris, C. J. Robertson, J. Bell, and D. A. Connell, “Skin-derived tenocyte-like cells for the treatment of patellar tendinopathy,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 614–623, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. J. K. Takeuchi and B. G. Bruneau, “Directed transdifferentiation of mouse mesoderm to heart tissue by defined factors,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7247, pp. 708–711, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. A. Jelinsky, J. Archambault, L. Li, and H. Seeherman, “Tendon-selective genes identified from rat and human musculoskeletal tissues,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 289–297, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Hoffmann, G. Pelled, G. Turgeman et al., “Neotendon formation induced by manipulation of the Smad8 signalling pathway in mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 940–952, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. T. Molloy, Y. Wang, and G. A. C. Murrell, “The roles of growth factors in tendon and ligament healing,” Sports Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 381–394, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. E. Brent, T. Braun, and C. J. Tabin, “Genetic analysis of interactions between the somitic muscle, cartilage and tendon cell lineages during mouse development,” Development, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 515–528, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. B. P. Chan, K. M. Chan, N. Maffulli, S. Webb, and K. K. H. Lee, “Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor: an in vitro study of tendon healing,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 342, pp. 239–247, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. Tezono, K. P. Sarker, H. Kikuchi, M. Nasu, I. Kitajima, and I. Maruyama, “Bioactivity of the vascular endothelial growth factor trapped in fibrin clots: production of IL-6 and IL-8 in monocytes by fibrin clots,” Haemostasis, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 71–79, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. Yoshikawa, H. Tohyama, T. Katsura et al., “Effects of local administration of vascular endothelial growth factor on mechanical characteristics of the semitendinosus tendon graft after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in sheep,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1918–1925, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Hou, Z. Mao, X. Wei et al., “The roles of TGF-β1 gene transfer on collagen formation during Achilles tendon healing,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 383, no. 2, pp. 235–239, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Rickert, H. Wang, P. Wieloch et al., “Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of growth and differentiation factor-5 into tenocytes and the healing rat achilles tendon,” Connective Tissue Research, vol. 46, no. 4-5, pp. 175–183, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. L. V. Schnabel, M. E. Lynch, M. C. H. Van Der Meulen, A. E. Yeager, M. A. Kornatowski, and A. J. Nixon, “Mesenchymal stem cells and insulin-like growth factor-I gene-enhanced mesenchymal stem cells improve structural aspects of healing in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1392–1398, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. Bullough, T. Finnigan, A. Kay, N. Maffulli, and N. R. Forsyth, “Tendon repair through stem cell intervention: c0ellular and molecular approaches,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 30, no. 20–22, pp. 1746–1751, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. L. Moffat, A. S. P. Kwei, J. P. Spalazzi, S. B. Doty, W. N. Levine, and H. H. Lu, “Novel nanofiber-based scaffold for rotator cuff repair and augmentation,” Tissue Engineering A, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 115–126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, A. J. El Haj, and N. Maffulli, “Tissue engineering for tendon repair,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 41, no. 8, p. e10, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. T. J. Koob and D. J. Hernandez, “Material properties of polymerized NDGA-collagen composite fibers: development of biologically based tendon constructs,” Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 203–212, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. S. Cartmell and M. G. Dunn, “Development of cell-seeded patellar tendon allografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 10, no. 7-8, pp. 1065–1075, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Sahoo, H. W. Ouyang, J. C. H. Goh, T. E. Tay, and S. L. Toh, “Towards an ideal polymer scaffold for tendon/ligament tissue engineering,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Experimental Mechanics and 3rd Conference of the Asian Committee on Experimental Mechanics, Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 658–664, December 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. L. Woodley, R. J. Newsham-West, and G. D. Baxter, “Chronic tendinopathy: effectiveness of eccentric exercise,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 188–198, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Van Eijk, D. B. F. Saris, L. B. Creemers et al., “The effect of timing of mechanical stimulation on proliferation and differentiation of goat bone marrow stem cells cultured on braided PLGA scaffolds,” Tissue Engineering A, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1425–1433, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. Juncosa-Melvin, K. S. Matlin, R. W. Holdcraft, V. S. Nirmalanandhan, and D. L. Butler, “Mechanical stimulation increases collagen type I and collagen type III gene expression of stem cell-collagen sponge constructs for patellar tendon repair,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1219–1226, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. Yang, R. C. Crawford, and J. H. C. Wang, “Proliferation and collagen production of human patellar tendon fibroblasts in response to cyclic uniaxial stretching in serum-free conditions,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1543–1550, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. Scott, J. L. Cook, D. A. Hart, D. C. Walker, V. Duronio, and K. M. Khan, “Tenocyte responses to mechanical loading in vivo: a role for local insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling in early tendinosis in rats,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 871–881, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. Benjamin and J. R. Ralphs, “The cell and developmental biology of tendons and ligaments,” International Review of Cytology, vol. 196, pp. 85–130, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. M. Archambault, M. K. Elfervig-Wall, M. Tsuzaki, W. Herzog, and A. J. Banes, “Rabbit tendon cells produce MMP-3 in response to fluid flow without significant calcium transients,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 303–309, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Zhang and J. H. C. Wang, “Production of PGE2 increases in tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading and induces differentiation of tendon stem cells into non-tenocytes,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 198–203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. F. Rui, P. P. Y. Lui, L. S. Chan et al., “Does erroneous differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells contribute to the pathogenesis of calcifying tendinopathy?” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 606–610, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  87. J. Chen, R. L. Horan, D. Bramono et al., “Monitoring mesenchymal stromal cell developmental stage to apply on-time mechanical stimulation for ligament tissue engineering,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 3085–3095, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Z. Feng, M. Ishibashi, Y. Nomura, T. Kitajima, and T. Nakamura, “Constraint stress, microstructural characteristics, and enhanced mechanical properties of a special fibroblast-embedded collagen construct,” Artificial Organs, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 870–877, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. S. Kryger, A. K. S. Chong, M. Costa, H. Pham, S. J. Bates, and J. Chang, “A comparison of tenocytes and mesenchymal stem cells for use in flexor tendon tissue engineering,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 597–605, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus