Table 2: Applications of AF stem cells.

AF cell sourceTarget tissueAnimal/disease modelDelivery routeReferences

HumanBrainNormal and twitcher neonatal mice Intracerebroventricular injection[14]
HumanBrainMouse cerebral ischemiaIntracerebroventricular injection[109]
HumanBrainRat cerebral ischemiaIntrastriatal injection[110]
RatBrainRat cerebral ischemiaIntravenous injection into the jugular vein[111]
HumanBrainMouse motor cortex injuryInjection or implantation of cells seeded on biocompatible scaffolds into the motor cortex [112]
HumanNerveRat sciatic nerve crush injuryInjection or implantation of cells and fibrin glue into the injury site [113117]
HumanNerve, MuscleRat sciatic nerve crush injury Intravenous injection[118]
HumanHeartRat cardiac infarctionIntracardiac injection of cells or cell sheet fragments [119, 120]
RatHeartRat cardiac infarctionIntracardiac injection [108, 121, 122]
HumanLung, HeartRat pulmonary hypertension and heart failureIntravenous injection into the tail vein[123]
SheepHeart valveFetal sheepClosed-heart implantation of cells seeded on biodegradable scaffolds in utero [104]
MouseSkeletal muscleMouse spinal muscular atrophyIntravenous injection into the tail vein[124]
HumanBoneMouse subcutaneous implantationSubcutaneous implantation of cells printed on biocompatible polymers[14]
RabbitBoneRabbit chest wall/sternal defectsBone graft implantation of cells seeded on biocompatible scaffolds into the injury site[99]
HumanBoneRat subcutaneous implantationSubcutaneous implantation of cells seeded on biocompatible polymers [101]
SheepCartilageFetal lamb tracheal reconstructionTracheal implantation of cells seeded on biocompatible scaffolds in utero [96]
SheepDiaphragmPostnatal sheep diaphragmatic herniaDiaphragmatic implantation of cells seeded on biocompatible scaffolds[97]
HumanKidneyMouse kidney acute tubular necrosisInjection into the renal cortex[106]
RatBladderRat cryo-injured bladderIntravascular injection[105]
RatAbdomenRatIntraperitoneal injection [125]
RabbitFetal membranesFetal rabbit iatrogenic membrane defectInjection into the plug followed by fixation to the fetal membranes[126]
SheepNonspecificFetal lamb organsInjection into the fetal peritoneal cavity in utero [127]
Mouse, HumanHematopoieticMouseIntravenous injection into the retro-orbital vein[128]