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Stem Cells International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 205878, 14 pages
Research Article

Hippocampal Neurogenesis and the Brain Repair Response to Brief Stereotaxic Insertion of a Microneedle

1Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, 13220 Laurel Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
2Research Service, James A. Haley VA Medical Center, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
3Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
4Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA

Received 28 June 2012; Revised 23 November 2012; Accepted 14 January 2013

Academic Editor: Joshua J. Breunig

Copyright © 2013 Shijie Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We tested the hypothesis that transient microinjury to the brain elicits cellular and humoral responses that stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Brief stereotaxic insertion and removal of a microneedle into the right hippocampus resulted in (a) significantly increased expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), the chemokine MIP-1a, and the proinflammatory cytokine IL12p40; (b) pronounced activation of microglia and astrocytes; and (c) increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. This study describes immediate and early humoral and cellular mechanisms of the brain’s response to microinjury that will be useful for the investigation of potential neuroprotective and deleterious effects of deep brain stimulation in various neuropsychiatric disorders.