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Stem Cells International
Volume 2015, Article ID 468428, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/468428
Review Article

Hedgehog and Resident Vascular Stem Cell Fate

1Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Health, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
2School of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Health, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
3Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA

Received 15 January 2015; Accepted 1 April 2015

Academic Editor: Qingzhong Xiao

Copyright © 2015 Ciaran J. Mooney et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The Hedgehog pathway is a pivotal morphogenic driver during embryonic development and a key regulator of adult stem cell self-renewal. The discovery of resident multipotent vascular stem cells and adventitial progenitors within the vessel wall has transformed our understanding of the origin of medial and neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during vessel repair in response to injury, lesion formation, and overall disease progression. This review highlights the importance of components of the Hh and Notch signalling pathways within the medial and adventitial regions of adult vessels, their recapitulation following vascular injury and disease progression, and their putative role in the maintenance and differentiation of resident vascular stem cells to vascular lineages from discrete niches within the vessel wall.