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Stem Cells International
Volume 2015, Article ID 746873, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/746873
Research Article

Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Promote Myocardial Fibrosis and Reverse Remodeling of the Left Ventricle

1Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology of Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, 4 Oparina Street, Moscow 117997, Russia
2Scientific Research Institute of Human Morphology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 3 Tsurupa Street, Moscow 117418, Russia
3Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovitianov Street, Moscow 117997, Russia
4Biological Testing Laboratory, Branch of Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 Nauki Avenue, Pushchino 142290, Russia
5Research Centre of Medical Genetics of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 1 Moskvorechie Street, Moscow 115478, Russia

Received 5 November 2014; Revised 28 December 2014; Accepted 28 December 2014

Academic Editor: Gary E. Lyons

Copyright © 2015 Timur Fatkhudinov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cell therapy is increasingly recognized as a beneficial practice in various cardiac conditions, but its fundamentals remain largely unclear. The fates of transplanted multipotent stromal cells in postinfarction cardiac microenvironments are particularly understudied. To address this issue, labeled multipotent stromal cells were infused into rat myocardium at day 30 after myocardial infarction, against the background of postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Therapeutic effects of the transplantation were assessed by an exercise tolerance test. Histological examination at 14 or 30 days after the transplantation was conducted by means of immunostaining and quantitative image analysis. An improvement in the functional status of the cardiovascular system was observed after both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantations. Location of the label-positive cells within the heart was restricted to the affected part of myocardium. The transplanted cells could give rise to fibroblasts or myofibroblasts but not to cardiac myocytes or blood vessel cells. Both types of transplantation positively influenced scarring processes, and no expansion of fibrosis to border myocardium was observed. Left ventricular wall thickening associated with reduced dilatation index was promoted by transplantation of the autologous cells. According to the results, multipotent stromal cell transplantation prevents adverse remodeling and stimulates left ventricular reverse remodeling.