Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1384658, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1384658
Review Article

Nanoparticles-Assisted Stem Cell Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease

1Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
2Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Shanghai 200032, China

Received 13 July 2015; Revised 4 October 2015; Accepted 8 October 2015

Academic Editor: Franca Fagioli

Copyright © 2016 Kai Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger et al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. e6–e245, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Blecker, M. Paul, G. Taksler, G. Ogedegbe, and S. Katz, “Heart failure-associated hospitalizations in the United States,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1259–1267, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. M. Ptaszek, M. Mansour, J. N. Ruskin, and K. R. Chien, “Towards regenerative therapy for cardiac disease,” The Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9819, pp. 933–942, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. C. Deedwania and E. V. Carbajal, “Medical therapy versus myocardial revascularization in chronic coronary syndrome and stable angina,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 124, no. 8, pp. 681–688, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Deb, H. C. Wijeysundera, D. T. Ko, H. Tsubota, S. Hill, and S. E. Fremes, “Coronary artery bypass graft surgery vs percutaneous interventions in coronary revascularization: a systematic review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 310, no. 19, pp. 2086–2095, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. A. Fisher, S. J. Brunskill, C. Doree et al., “Stem cell therapy for chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 4, Article ID CD007888, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  7. I. Y. Wong, S. N. Bhatia, and M. Toner, “Nanotechnology: emerging tools for biology and medicine,” Genes and Development, vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 2397–2408, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Mädler, and N. Li, “Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5761, pp. 622–627, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Zhao, Y. Zhao, Y. Liu, X. Chang, C. Chen, and Y. Zhao, “Cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and cytotoxicity of nanomaterials,” Small, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1322–1337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Singh, B. Manshian, G. J. S. Jenkins et al., “NanoGenotoxicology: the DNA damaging potential of engineered nanomaterials,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 23-24, pp. 3891–3914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. J. Soenen, P. Rivera-Gil, J.-M. Montenegro, W. J. Parak, S. C. De Smedt, and K. Braeckmans, “Cellular toxicity of inorganic nanoparticles: common aspects and guidelines for improved nanotoxicity evaluation,” Nano Today, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 446–465, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. K. Jain, M. K. Reddy, M. A. Morales, D. L. Leslie-Pelecky, and V. Labhasetwar, “Biodistribution, clearance, and biocompatibility of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in rats,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 316–327, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Donaldson, R. Duffin, J. P. Langrish et al., “Nanoparticles and the cardiovascular system: a critical review,” Nanomedicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 403–423, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Pietroiusti, L. Campagnolo, and B. Fadeel, “Interactions of engineered nanoparticles with organs protected by internal biological barriers,” Small, vol. 9, no. 9-10, pp. 1557–1572, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Anversa, J. Kajstura, M. Rota, and A. Leri, “Regenerating new heart with stem cells,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Elsässer, K. Suzuki, S. Lorenz-Meyer, C. Bode, and J. Schaper, “The role of apoptosis in myocardial ischemia: a critical appraisal,” Basic Research in Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 219–226, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. A. Deutsch, A. Sturzu, and S. M. Wu, “At a crossroad: cell therapy for cardiac repair,” Circulation Research, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 884–890, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S.-I. Takashima, D. Tempel, and H. J. Duckers, “Current outlook of cardiac stem cell therapy towards a clinical application,” Heart, vol. 99, no. 23, pp. 1772–1784, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. S. Penn and A. A. Mangi, “Genetic enhancement of stem cell engraftment, survival, and efficacy,” Circulation Research, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 1471–1482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. P. Hodgkinson, J. A. Gomez, M. Mirotsou, and V. J. Dzau, “Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells and its application in human disease therapy,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1513–1526, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Marbán and K. Malliaras, “Mixed results for bone marrow-derived cell therapy for ischemic heart disease,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 308, no. 22, pp. 2405–2406, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. Li, N. Ma, L.-L. Ong et al., “Bcl-2 engineered MSCs inhibited apoptosis and improved heart function,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 2118–2127, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Deuse, C. Peter, P. W. M. Fedak et al., “Hepatocyte growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer maximizes mesenchymal stem cell-based myocardial salvage after acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 11, supplement, pp. S247–S254, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Tang, J. Wang, J. Yang et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells over-expressing SDF-1 promote angiogenesis and improve heart function in experimental myocardial infarction in rats,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 644–650, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Hamm, N. Krott, I. Breibach, R. Blindt, and A. K. Bosserhoff, “Efficient transfection method for primary cells,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 235–245, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. E. Muroski, T. J. Morgan, C. W. Levenson, and G. F. Strouse, “A gold nanoparticle pentapeptide: gene fusion to induce therapeutic gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 136, no. 42, pp. 14763–14771, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Lehrman, “Virus treatment questioned after gene therapy death,” Nature, vol. 401, no. 6753, pp. 517–518, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. Walther and U. Stein, “Viral vectors for gene transfer: a review of their use in the treatment of human diseases,” Drugs, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 249–271, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. S. Draz, B. A. Fang, P. Zhang et al., “Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of siRNA for treatment of cancers and viral infections,” Theranostics, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 872–892, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Shi, J. A. Gustafson, and J. A. MacKay, “Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1617–1626, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Zhang, F. X. Gu, J. M. Chan, A. Z. Wang, R. S. Langer, and O. C. Farokhzad, “Nanoparticles in medicine: therapeutic applications and developments,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 761–769, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Z. Cui, J. Fan, S. Kim et al., “Delivery of siRNA via cationic Sterosomes to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 217, pp. 42–52, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Beloor, S. Ramakrishna, K. Nam et al., “Effective gene delivery into human stem cells with a cell-targeting peptide-modified bioreducible polymer,” Small, vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2069–2079, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Gandra, D.-D. Wang, Y. Zhu, and C. Mao, “Virus-mimetic cytoplasm-cleavable magnetic/silica nanoclusters for enhanced gene delivery to mesenchymal stem cells,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 52, no. 43, pp. 11278–11281, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Montier, T. Benvegnu, P.-A. Jaffrès, J.-J. Yaouanc, and P. Lehn, “Progress in cationic lipid-mediated gene transfection: a series of bio-inspired lipids as an example,” Current Gene Therapy, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 296–312, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Ye, H. K. Haider, R. Tan et al., “Angiomyogenesis using liposome based vascular endothelial growth factor-165 transfection with skeletal myoblast for cardiac repair,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 2125–2137, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Zhu, H. Lai, C. Guo, D. Xu, and C. Wang, “Novel vascular endothelial growth factor gene delivery system-manipulated mesenchymal stem cells repair infarcted myocardium,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 237, no. 6, pp. 678–687, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Zhu, C. Guo, J. Li et al., “Nanovector-based prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 silencing system enhances the efficiency of stem cell transplantation for infarcted myocardium repair,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5203–5215, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. Hoelters, M. Ciccarella, M. Drechsel et al., “Nonviral genetic modification mediates effective transgene expression and functional RNA interference in human mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Gene Medicine, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 718–728, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. R. Dass, “Cytotoxicity issues pertinent to lipoplex-mediated gene therapy in-vivo,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 593–601, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Anwer, B. G. Rhee, and S. K. Mendiratta, “Recent progress in polymeric gene delivery systems,” Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 249–293, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. W. Pack, A. S. Hoffman, S. Pun, and P. S. Stayton, “Design and development of polymers for gene delivery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 581–593, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Saraf, M. C. Hacker, B. Sitharaman, K. J. Grande-Allen, M. A. Barry, and A. G. Mikos, “Synthesis and conformational evaluation of a novel gene delivery vector for human mesenchymal stem cells,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 818–827, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. S. Park, H. N. Yang, D. G. Woo, S. Y. Jeon, and K.-H. Park, “Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) nanogels for tracing and delivering genes to human mesenchymal stem cells,” Biomaterials, vol. 34, no. 34, pp. 8819–8834, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Kim and T. Hyeon, “Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents,” Nanotechnology, vol. 25, no. 1, Article ID 012001, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. X. Cao, W. Deng, Y. Wei et al., “Encapsulation of plasmid DNA in calcium phosphate nanoparticles: stem cell uptake and gene transfer efficiency,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 3335–3349, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Moradian, H. Fasehee, H. Keshvari, and S. Faghihi, “Poly(ethyleneimine) functionalized carbon nanotubes as efficient nano-vector for transfecting mesenchymal stem cells,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 122, pp. 115–125, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. B. Cao, P. Qiu, and C. Mao, “Mesoporous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by polyacrylic acid etching and their application in gene delivery to mesenchymal stem cells,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. 936–941, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T.-H. Kim, M. Kim, M. Eltohamy, Y.-R. Yun, J.-H. Jang, and H.-W. Kim, “Efficacy of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in delivering BMP-2 plasmid DNA for in vitro osteogenic stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 1651–1660, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. N. Yang, J. S. Park, S. Y. Jeon, W. Park, K. Na, and K.-H. Park, “The effect of quantum dot size and poly(ethylenimine) coating on the efficiency of gene delivery into human mesenchymal stem cells,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 29, pp. 8439–8449, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. Song, G. Wang, B. He et al., “Cationic lipid-coated PEI/DNA polyplexes with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity for gene delivery into mesenchymal stem cells,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 4637–4648, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Xiang, H. Tong, Q. Shi et al., “Uptake mechanisms of non-viral gene delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 371–378, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. I. S. Zuhorn, R. Kalicharan, and D. Hoekstra, “Lipoplex-mediated transfection of mammalian cells occurs through the cholesterol-dependent clathrin-mediated pathway of endocytosis,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 20, pp. 18021–18028, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. W. Wang, W. Li, L. Ou et al., “Polyethylenimine-mediated gene delivery into human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from patients,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1989–1998, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Xu and F. C. Szoka Jr., “Mechanism of DNA release from cationic liposome/DNA complexes used in cell transfection,” Biochemistry, vol. 35, no. 18, pp. 5616–5623, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Ylä-Herttuala, “Cardiovascular gene therapy with vascular endothelial growth factors,” Gene, vol. 525, no. 2, pp. 217–219, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Y. Gao, Y. Cui, J. K. Chan, and C. Xu, “Stem cell tracking with optically active nanoparticles,” American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 232–246, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  58. E. J. Sutton, T. D. Henning, B. J. Pichler, C. Bremer, and H. E. Daldrup-Link, “Cell tracking with optical imaging,” European Radiology, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2021–2032, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Rao, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, and H. Yao, “Fluorescence imaging in vivo: recent advances,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. A. Anderson, K. K. Lee, and J. A. Frank, “Gadolinium-fullerenol as a paramagnetic contrast agent for cellular imaging,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 332–338, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. N. Ebert, D. G. Taylor, H.-L. Nguyen et al., “Noninvasive tracking of cardiac embryonic stem cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging techniques,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2936–2944, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. L. M. A. Beeres, F. M. Bengel, J. Bartunek et al., “Role of imaging in cardiac stem cell therapy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1137–1148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Pearl and J. C. Wu, “Seeing is believing: tracking cells to determine the effects of cell transplantation,” Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 102–109, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. F. Lau, S. A. Anderson, E. Adler, and J. A. Frank, “Imaging approaches for the study of cell-based cardiac therapies,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 97–105, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. F. Kircher, S. S. Gambhir, and J. Grimm, “Noninvasive cell-tracking methods,” Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 677–688, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Xu, L. Mu, I. Roes et al., “Nanoparticle-based monitoring of cell therapy,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 49, Article ID 494001, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. R. Hachani, M. Lowdell, M. Birchall, and N. T. K. Thanh, “Tracking stem cells in tissue-engineered organs using magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 23, pp. 11362–11373, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Li, W. Jiang, K. Luo et al., “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents for non-invasive stem cell labeling and tracking,” Theranostics, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 595–615, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. Bull, S. Y. Madani, R. Sheth, A. Seifalian, M. Green, and A. M. Seifalian, “Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1641–1653, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. Ma, H. Cheng, M. Lu et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging with superparamagnetic iron oxide fails to track the long-term fate of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into heart,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, article 9058, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. Z. Huang, C. Li, S. Yang et al., “Magnetic resonance hypointensive signal primarily originates from extracellular iron particles in the long-term tracking of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in the infarcted myocardium,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 10, pp. 1679–1690, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. L. A. Tran, R. Krishnamurthy, R. Muthupillai et al., “Gadonanotubes as magnetic nanolabels for stem cell detection,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 36, pp. 9482–9491, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Guenoun, G. A. Koning, G. Doeswijk et al., “Cationic Gd-DTPA liposomes for highly efficient labeling of mesenchymal stem cells and cell tracking with MRI,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 191–205, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. W. Park, H. N. Yang, D. Ling et al., “Multi-modal transfection agent based on monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles for stem cell gene delivery and tracking,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 25, pp. 7239–7247, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. B. J. Muller-Borer, M. C. Collins, P. R. Gunst, W. E. Cascio, and A. P. Kypson, “Quantum dot labeling of mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 5, article 9, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. Zhao, A. Kutikov, J. Shen, C. Duan, J. Song, and G. Han, “Stem cell labeling using polyethylenimine conjugated (α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 upconversion nanoparticles,” Theranostics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 249–257, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in living subjects: Seeing fundamental biological processes in a new light,” Genes and Development, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 545–580, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. Cheon and J.-H. Lee, “Synergistically integrated nanoparticles as multimodal probes for nanobiotechnology,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1630–1640, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. P. K. Nguyen, F. Lan, Y. Wang, and J. C. Wu, “Imaging: guiding the clinical translation of cardiac stem cell therapy,” Circulation Research, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. 962–979, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. Pavo, S. Charwat, N. Nyolczas et al., “Cell therapy for human ischemic heart diseases: critical review and summary of the clinical experiences,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 75, pp. 12–24, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. Blocki, S. Beyer, J. Y. Dewavrin et al., “Microcapsules engineered to support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) survival and proliferation enable long-term retention of MSCs in infarcted myocardium,” Biomaterials, vol. 53, pp. 12–24, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. A. Al Kindi, Y. Ge, D. Shum-Tim, and R. C.-J. Chiu, “Cellular cardiomyoplasty: routes of cell delivery and retention,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 2421–2434, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. W. J. Kang, H. J. Kang, H. S. Kim et al., “Tissue distribution of 18F-FDG-labeled peripheral hematopoietic stem cells after intracoronary administration in patients with myocardial infarction,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1295–1301, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  84. A. C. Vandergriff, T. M. Hensley, E. T. Henry et al., “Magnetic targeting of cardiosphere-derived stem cells with ferumoxytol nanoparticles for treating rats with myocardial infarction,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 30, pp. 8528–8539, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Z. Huang, Y. Shen, A. Sun et al., “Magnetic targeting enhances retrograde cell retention in a rat model of myocardial infarction,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 4, no. 6, article 149, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L. A. Tran, M. Hernández-Rivera, A. N. Berlin et al., “The use of gadolinium-carbon nanostructures to magnetically enhance stem cell retention for cellular cardiomyoplasty,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 720–726, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. K. Cheng, K. Malliaras, T.-S. Li et al., “Magnetic enhancement of cell retention, engraftment, and functional benefit after intracoronary delivery of cardiac-derived stem cells in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1121–1135, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. K. Cheng, D. Shen, M. T. Hensley et al., “Magnetic antibody-linked nanomatchmakers for therapeutic cell targeting,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, article 4880, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. Y. Shen, X. Liu, Z. Huang et al., “Comparison of magnetic intensities for mesenchymal stem cell targeting therapy on ischemic myocardial repair: high magnetic intensity improves cell retention but has no additional functional benefit,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1981–1997, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. Y. Tan, D. Richards, R. Xu et al., “Silicon nanowire-induced maturation of cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 2765–2772, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar