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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6180487, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6180487
Review Article

Prospect of Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Engineering: A Review

1Department of Chemical, Paper and Biomedical Engineering, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
2Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
3Sciences Chimiques, University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, 35042 Rennes, France

Received 13 September 2015; Accepted 25 November 2015

Academic Editor: Susan Liao

Copyright © 2016 Azizeh-Mitra Yousefi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been the subject of many studies in recent years, ranging from basic science that looks into MSCs properties to studies that aim for developing bioengineered tissues and organs. Adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been the focus of most studies due to the inherent potential of these cells to differentiate into various cell types. Although, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of cellular differentiation. These cells are another attractive stem cell source because of their ability to be reprogramed, allowing the generation of multiple cell types from a single cell. This paper briefly covers various types of stem cell sources that have been used for tissue engineering applications, with a focus on bone regeneration. Then, an overview of some recent studies making use of MSC-seeded 3D scaffold systems for bone tissue engineering has been presented. The emphasis has been placed on the reported scaffold properties that tend to improve MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation outcomes.