Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 7920358, 23 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7920358
Review Article

Stem Cell Tracking with Nanoparticles for Regenerative Medicine Purposes: An Overview

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, Orbassano, 10043 Turin, Italy

Received 1 July 2015; Revised 7 October 2015; Accepted 11 October 2015

Academic Editor: Pavla Jendelova

Copyright © 2016 Lisa Accomasso et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. S. Daar, P. A. Singer, D. L. Persad et al., “Grand challenges in chronic non-communicable diseases,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7169, pp. 494–496, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. J. Laird, U. H. von Andrian, and A. J. Wagers, “Stem cell trafficking in tissue development, growth, and disease,” Cell, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 612–630, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. M. Gimble, A. J. Katz, and B. A. Bunnell, “Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine,” Circulation Research, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 1249–1260, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. J. Evans and M. H. Kaufman, “Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos,” Nature, vol. 292, no. 5819, pp. 154–156, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. R. Martin, “Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 7634–7638, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. M. Kamm, “Ethical issues in using and not using embryonic stem cells,” Stem Cell Reviews, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 325–330, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Hyun, “The bioethics of stem cell research and therapy,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Takahashi and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors,” Cell, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 663–676, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Takahashi, K. Tanabe, M. Ohnuki et al., “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors,” Cell, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 861–872, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Okita, T. Ichisaka, and S. Yamanaka, “Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells,” Nature, vol. 448, no. 7151, pp. 313–317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Yu, M. A. Vodyanik, K. Smuga-Otto et al., “Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5858, pp. 1917–1920, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. J. Wong, H. Liu, T. W. Ridky, D. Cassarino, E. Segal, and H. Y. Chang, “Module map of stem cell genes guides creation of epithelial cancer stem cells,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 333–344, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Miura, Y. Okada, T. Aoi et al., “Variation in the safety of induced pluripotent stem cell lines,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 743–745, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. J. Cunningham, T. M. Ulbright, M. F. Pera, and L. H. J. Looijenga, “Lessons from human teratomas to guide development of safe stem cell therapies,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 849–857, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. W. Fink, “FDA regulation of stem cell-based products,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5935, pp. 1662–1663, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Gutierrez-Aranda, V. Ramos-Mejia, C. Bueno et al., “Human induced pluripotent stem cells develop teratoma more efficiently and faster than human embryonic stem cells regardless the site of injection,” Stem Cells, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1568–1570, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Jiang, B. N. Jahagirdar, R. L. Reinhardt et al., “Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6893, pp. 41–49, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. J. Quesenberry, L. R. Goldberg, and M. S. Dooner, “Concise reviews: a stem cell apostasy: a tale of four H words,” Stem Cells, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. A. Lim and A. Alvarez-Buylla, “Adult neural stem cells stake their ground,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 563–571, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. F. Pittenger, A. M. Mackay, S. C. Beck et al., “Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5411, pp. 143–147, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, P. Ashjian et al., “Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 4279–4295, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Marongiu, R. Gramignoli, Q. Sun et al., “Isolation of amniotic mesenchymal stem cells,” Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology, vol. 1, pp. 1E.5.1–1E.5.11, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. J. Gang, J. A. Jeong, S. H. Hong et al., “Skeletal myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood,” STEM CELLS, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 617–624, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Toma, M. F. Pittenger, K. S. Cahill, B. J. Byrne, and P. D. Kessler, “Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to a cardiomyocyte phenotype in the adult murine heart,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. P. Jori, M. A. Napolitano, M. A. B. Melone et al., “Molecular pathways involved in neural in vitro differentiation of marrow stromal stem cells,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 645–655, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. C. Amado, A. P. Saliaris, K. H. Schuleri et al., “Cardiac repair with intramyocardial injection of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells after myocardial infarction,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 32, pp. 11474–11479, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Miyahara, N. Nagaya, M. Kataoka et al., “Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction,” Nature Medicine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 459–465, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. J. Prockop, M. Brenner, W. E. Fibbe et al., “Defining the risks of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy,” Cytotherapy, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 576–578, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. I. Caplan, “Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 213, no. 2, pp. 341–347, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. Ryan, F. P. Barry, J. M. Murphy, and B. P. Mahon, “Mesenchymal stem cells avoid allogeneic rejection,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 2, no. 1, article 8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Saparov, C.-W. Chen, S. A. Beckman, Y. Wang, and J. Huard, “The role of antioxidation and immunomodulation in postnatal multipotent stem cell-mediated cardiac repair,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 16258–16279, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Skalnikova, J. Motlik, S. J. Gadher, and H. Kovarova, “Mapping of the secretome of primary isolates of mammalian cells, stem cells and derived cell lines,” Proteomics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 691–708, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Gallina, V. Turinetto, and C. Giachino, “A new paradigm in cardiac regeneration: the mesenchymal stem cell secretome,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2015, Article ID 765846, 10 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. M. P. Lutolf and J. A. Hubbell, “Synthetic biomaterials as instructive extracellular microenvironments for morphogenesis in tissue engineering,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. E. Dennis, S. E. Haynesworth, R. G. Young, and A. I. Caplan, “Osteogenesis in marrow-derived mesenchymal cell porous ceramic composites transplanted subcutaneously: effect of fibronectin and laminin on cell retention and rate of osteogenic expression,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. E. Dennis, E. K. Konstantakos, D. Arm, and A. I. Caplan, “In vivo osteogenesis assay: a rapid method for quantitative analysis,” Biomaterials, vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 1323–1328, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Ohgushi and A. I. Caplan, “Stem cell technology and bioceramics: from cell to gene engineering,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 913–927, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. A. Solchaga, J. S. Temenoff, J. Gao, A. G. Mikos, A. I. Caplan, and V. M. Goldberg, “Repair of osteochondral defects with hyaluronan- and polyester-based scaffolds,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 297–309, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Ohgushi, Y. Dohi, S. Tamai, and S. Tabata, “Osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal stem cells in porous hydroxyapatite ceramics,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1401–1407, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Ohgushi, N. Kotobuki, H. Funaoka et al., “Tissue engineered ceramic artificial joint—ex vivo osteogenic differentiation of patient mesenchymal cells on total ankle joints for treatment of osteoarthritis,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 4654–4661, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Cristallini, E. Cibrario Rocchietti, L. Accomasso et al., “The effect of bioartificial constructs that mimic myocardial structure and biomechanical properties on stem cell commitment towards cardiac lineage,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 92–104, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. R. Kirker, Y. Luo, J. H. Nielson, J. Shelby, and G. D. Prestwich, “Glycosaminoglycan hydrogel films as bio-interactive dressings for wound healing,” Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 17, pp. 3661–3671, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Park, J. S. Temenoff, Y. Tabata, A. I. Caplan, and A. G. Mikos, “Injectable biodegradable hydrogel composites for rabbit marrow mesenchymal stem cell and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3217–3227, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Ren, X. Chen, F. Dong et al., “Concise review: mesenchymal stem cells and translational medicine: emerging issues,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. K. Nguyen, D. Nag, and J. C. Wu, “Methods to assess stem cell lineage, fate and function,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1175–1186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Srinivas, E. H. J. G. Aarntzen, J. W. M. Bulte et al., “Imaging of cellular therapies,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1080–1093, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Otero, M. Zurita, C. Bonilla et al., “Allogeneic bone marrow stromal cell transplantation after cerebral hemorrhage achieves cell transdifferentiation and modulates endogenous neurogenesis,” Cytotherapy, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 34–44, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. K. Lee, H. K. Jin, S. Endo, E. H. Schuchman, J. E. Carter, and J.-S. Bae, “Intracerebral transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduces amyloid-beta deposition and rescues memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease mice by modulation of immune responses,” Stem Cells, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 329–343, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. D. Pagani, H. DerSimonian, A. Zawadzka et al., “Autologous skeletal myoblasts transplanted to ischemia-damaged myocardium in humans: histological analysis of cell survival and differentiation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 879–888, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Perán, M. A. García, E. López-Ruiz et al., “Functionalized nanostructures with application in regenerative medicine,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 3847–3886, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. G. Buschke, J. M. Squirrell, J. J. Fong, K. W. Eliceiri, and B. M. Ogle, “Cell death, non-invasively assessed by intrinsic fluorescence intensity of NADH, is a predictive indicator of functional differentiation of embryonic stem cells,” Biology of the Cell, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 352–364, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Chalfie, Y. Tu, G. Euskirchen, W. W. Ward, and D. C. Prasher, “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression,” Science, vol. 263, no. 5148, pp. 802–805, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Wang, F. Cao, A. De et al., “Trafficking mesenchymal stem cell engraftment and differentiation in tumor-bearing mice by bioluminescence imaging,” Stem Cells, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1548–1558, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Bhirde, J. Xie, M. Swierczewska, and X. Chen, “Nanoparticles for cell labeling,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 142–153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Solanki, J. D. Kim, and K.-B. Lee, “Nanotechnology for regenerative medicine: nanomaterials for stem cell imaging,” Nanomedicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 567–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. K. D. Deb, M. Griffith, E. de Muinck, and M. Rafat, “Nanotechnology in stem cells research: advances and applications,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1747–1760, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. Villa, S. Erratico, P. Razini et al., “Stem cell tracking by nanotechnologies,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1070–1081, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. Donaldson, “Resolving the nanoparticles paradox,” Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 229–234, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  59. S. Arora, J. M. Rajwade, and K. M. Paknikar, “Nanotoxicology and in vitro studies: the need of the hour,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 258, no. 2, pp. 151–165, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. European Commission, “Commission recommendation of 18 October 2011 on the definition of nanomaterial (2011/696/EU),” Official Journal of the European Communities: Legis, pp. 275–238, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  61. D. Napierska, L. C. J. Thomassen, D. Lison, J. A. Martens, and P. H. Hoet, “The nanosilica hazard: another variable entity,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 7, no. 1, article 39, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. Linsinger, G. Roebben, D. Gilliland et al., Requirements on Measurements for the Implementation of the European Commission Definition of the Term'nanomaterial, Publications Office of the European Union, 2012.
  63. N. V. Long, N. D. Chien, T. Hayakawa, H. Hirata, G. Lakshminarayana, and M. Nogami, “The synthesis and characterization of platinum nanoparticles: a method of controlling the size and morphology,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 3, Article ID 035605, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Ahmed, S. Sharma, K. V. Ramanujachary, S. E. Lofland, and A. K. Ganguli, “Microemulsion-mediated synthesis of cobalt (pure fcc and hexagonal phases) and cobalt-nickel alloy nanoparticles,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 336, no. 2, pp. 814–819, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J.-S. Hu, Y.-G. Guo, H.-P. Liang, L.-J. Wan, and L. Jiang, “Three-dimensional self-organization of supramolecular self-assembled porphyrin hollow hexagonal nanoprisms,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 48, pp. 17090–17095, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Jitianu and D. V. Goia, “Zinc oxide colloids with controlled size, shape, and structure,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 309, no. 1, pp. 78–85, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. T.-Z. Ren, Z.-Y. Yuan, W. Hu, and X. Zou, “Single crystal manganese oxide hexagonal plates with regulated mesoporous structures,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 112, no. 1–3, pp. 467–473, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. Schmidt, A. Vargas, T. Mallat, and A. Baiker, “Shape-selective enantioselective hydrogenation on Pt nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 34, pp. 12358–12367, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated growth approach for shape-controlled synthesis of spheroidal and rod-like gold nanoparticles using a surfactant template,” Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 1389–1393, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. Guo, Y. Ji, H. Xu, Z. Wu, and P. Simon, “Synthesis and evolution of rod-like nano-scaled ZnC2O4·2H2O whiskers to ZnO nanoparticles,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 754–757, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. Xiao, S. I. Cho, R. Liu, and B. L. Sang, “Controlled electrochemical synthesis of conductive polymer nanotube structures,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 14, pp. 4483–4489, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. Oberdörster, E. Oberdörster, and J. Oberdörster, “Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 823–839, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. Joris, B. B. Manshian, K. Peynshaert, S. C. De Smedt, K. Braeckmans, and S. J. Soenen, “Assessing nanoparticle toxicity in cell-based assays: influence of cell culture parameters and optimized models for bridging the in vitro-in vivo gap,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 42, no. 21, pp. 8339–8359, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. M. Sayes and D. B. Warheit, “Characterization of nanomaterials for toxicity assessment,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 660–670, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. D. Walczyk, F. B. Bombelli, M. P. Monopoli, I. Lynch, and K. A. Dawson, “What the cell “sees” in bionanoscience,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 16, pp. 5761–5768, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. P. Monopoli, C. Åberg, A. Salvati, and K. A. Dawson, “Biomolecular coronas provide the biological identity of nanosized materials,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 779–786, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. S. Pitek, D. O'Connell, E. Mahon, M. P. Monopoli, F. Francesca Baldelli, and K. A. Dawson, “Transferrin coated nanoparticles: study of the bionano interface in human plasma,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 7, Article ID e40685, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. M. Kelly, C. Åberg, E. Polo et al., “Mapping protein binding sites on the biomolecular corona of nanoparticles,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 472–479, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. S. Wan, P. M. Kelly, E. Mahon et al., “The ‘Sweet’ side of the protein corona: effects of glycosylation on nanoparticle–cell interactions,” ACS Nano, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 2157–2166, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. S. Tenzer, D. Docter, J. Kuharev et al., “Rapid formation of plasma protein corona critically affects nanoparticle pathophysiology,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 772–781, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. Casals, T. Pfaller, A. Duschl, G. J. Oostingh, and V. F. Puntes, “Hardening of the nanoparticle-protein corona in metal (Au, Ag) and oxide (Fe3O4, CoO, and CeO2) nanoparticles,” Small, vol. 7, no. 24, pp. 3479–3486, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. G. Maiorano, S. Sabella, B. Sorce et al., “Effects of cell culture media on the dynamic formation of protein-nanoparticle complexes and influence on the cellular response,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 7481–7491, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. Gao, Y. Cui, J. K. Chan, and C. Xu, “Stem cell tracking with optically active nanoparticles,” American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 232–246, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  84. S. Lehmann, S. Seiffert, and W. Richtering, “Diffusion of guest molecules within sensitive core–shell microgel carriers,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 431, pp. 204–208, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. Shcharbin, A. Shakhbazau, and M. Bryszewska, “Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer complexes as a platform for gene delivery,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1687–1698, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. E. Pérez-Herrero and A. Fernández-Medarde, “Advanced targeted therapies in cancer: drug nanocarriers, the future of chemotherapy,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 93, pp. 52–79, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. J. L. Arias, “Advanced methodologies to formulate nanotheragnostic agents for combined drug delivery and imaging,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1589–1608, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Liong, J. Lu, M. Kovochich et al., “Multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles for imaging, targeting, and drug delivery,” ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 889–896, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. E. L. da Rocha, L. M. Porto, and C. R. Rambo, “Nanotechnology meets 3D in vitro models: tissue engineered tumors and cancer therapies,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 270–279, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Jung, J. Nam, S. Hwang et al., “Theragnostic pH-sensitive gold nanoparticles for the selective surface enhanced Raman scattering and photothermal cancer therapy,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 85, no. 16, pp. 7674–7681, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. M. Shenoi, N. B. Shah, R. J. Griffin, G. M. Vercellotti, and J. C. Bischof, “Nanoparticle preconditioning for enhanced thermal therapies in cancer,” Nanomedicine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 545–563, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. K. Donaldson, V. Stone, C. L. Tran, W. Kreyling, and P. J. A. Borm, “Nanotoxicology,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 727–728, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. N. Lewinski, V. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Cytotoxicity of nanopartides,” Small, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 26–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Mädler, and N. Li, “Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5761, pp. 622–627, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. R. Duffin, L. Tran, D. Brown, V. Stone, and K. Donaldson, “Proinflammogenic effects of low-toxicity and metal nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro: highlighting the role of particle surface area and surface reactivity,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 849–856, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. E. C. Cho, Q. Zhang, and Y. Xia, “The effect of sedimentation and diffusion on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 385–391, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. T. Wang, J. Bai, X. Jiang, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Cellular uptake of nanoparticles by membrane penetration: a study combining confocal microscopy with FTIR spectroelectrochemistry,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1251–1259, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. C. Schweiger, R. Hartmann, F. Zhang, W. J. Parak, T. H. Kissel, and P. Rivera-Gil, “Quantification of the internalization patterns of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with opposite charge,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 10, no. 1, article 28, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. K. Gupta, M. Gupta, S. J. Yarwood, and A. S. G. Curtis, “Effect of cellular uptake of gelatin nanoparticles on adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton organisation of human fibroblasts,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 197–207, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Y. Yang, C. Bauer, G. Strasser, R. Wollman, J.-P. Julien, and E. Fuchs, “Integrators of the cytoskeleton that stabilize microtubules,” Cell, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 229–238, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. B. Qualmann, M. M. Kessels, and R. B. Kelly, “Molecular links between endocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton,” The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. F111–F116, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, “Cytotoxicity suppression and cellular uptake enhancement of surface modified magnetic nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1565–1573, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. C. C. Berry, S. Wells, S. Charles, G. Aitchison, and A. S. G. Curtis, “Cell response to dextran-derivatised iron oxide nanoparticles post internalisation,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 5405–5413, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. K. Buyukhatipoglu and A. M. Clyne, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles change endothelial cell morphology and mechanics via reactive oxygen species formation,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 186–195, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. K. Donaldson, P. J. A. Borm, V. Castranova, and M. Gulumian, “The limits of testing particle-mediated oxidative stress in vitro in predicting diverse pathologies; relevance for testing of nanoparticles,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 6, article 13, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. L. Risom, P. Møller, and S. Loft, “Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by particulate air pollution,” Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, vol. 592, no. 1-2, pp. 119–137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. Y.-J. Gu, J. Cheng, C.-C. Lin, Y. W. Lam, S. H. Cheng, and W.-T. Wong, “Nuclear penetration of surface functionalized gold nanoparticles,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 237, no. 2, pp. 196–204, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. N. Singh, B. Manshian, G. J. S. Jenkins et al., “NanoGenotoxicology: the DNA damaging potential of engineered nanomaterials,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 23-24, pp. 3891–3914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. T. R. Pisanic II, J. D. Blackwell, V. I. Shubayev, R. R. Fiñones, and S. Jin, “Nanotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle internalization in growing neurons,” Biomaterials, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 2572–2581, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. S. Lanone and J. Boczkowski, “Biomedical applications and potential health risks of nanomaterials: molecular mechanisms,” Current Molecular Medicine, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 651–663, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. A. El-Ansary and S. Al-Daihan, “On the toxicity of therapeutically used nanoparticles: an overview,” Journal of Toxicology, vol. 2009, Article ID 754810, 9 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. K. L. Aillon, Y. Xie, N. El-Gendy, C. J. Berkland, and M. L. Forrest, “Effects of nanomaterial physicochemical properties on in vivo toxicity,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 457–466, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. L. Ferreira, J. M. Karp, L. Nobre, and R. Langer, “New opportunities: the use of nanotechnologies to manipulate and track stem cells,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 136–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. B. Rizvi, S. Ghaderi, M. Keshtgar, A. M. Seifalian, and M. Muhammed, “Semiconductor quantum dots as fluorescent probes for in vitro and in vivo bio-molecular and cellular imaging,” Nano Reviews, vol. 1, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nature Materials, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 435–446, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. K. Jaiswal, H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, and S. M. Simon, “Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. R. Clapp, I. L. Medintz, and H. Mattoussi, “Förster resonance energy transfer investigations using quantum-dot fluorophores,” ChemPhysChem, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47–57, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. I. L. Medintz and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot-based resonance energy transfer and its growing application in biology,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17–45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. W. C. W. Chan, D. J. Maxwell, X. Gao, R. E. Bailey, M. Han, and S. Nie, “Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. M. Seydack, “Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2454–2469, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. Z. Deng, Y. Zhang, J. Yue, F. Tang, and Q. Wei, “Green and orange CdTe quantum dots as effective pH-sensitive fluorescent probes for dual simultaneous and independent detection of viruses,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 111, no. 41, pp. 12024–12031, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. W. R. Algar and U. J. Krull, “Quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer for the bioanalysis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other biological molecules,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 391, no. 5, pp. 1609–1618, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu et al., “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. K. Wagner, F. Li, J. Li, X.-F. Li, and X. C. Le, “Use of quantum dots in the development of assays for cancer biomarkers,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 397, no. 8, pp. 3213–3224, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. A. M. Derfus, W. C. W. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, “Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila et al., “Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5709, pp. 538–544, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, “In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. Hoshino, K. Fujioka, T. Oku et al., “Physicochemical properties and cellular toxicity of nanocrystal quantum dots depend on their surface modification,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 2163–2169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. Bruchez Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science, vol. 281, no. 5385, pp. 2013–2016, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection,” Science, vol. 281, no. 5385, pp. 2016–2018, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. S. K. Chakraborty, J. A. J. Fitzpatrick, J. A. Phillippi et al., “Cholera toxin B conjugated quantum dots for live cell labeling,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2618–2626, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. B. S. Shah, P. A. Clark, E. K. Moioli, M. A. Stroscio, and J. J. Mao, “Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells by bioconjugated quantum dots,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3071–3079, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. S.-C. Hsieh, F.-F. Wang, S.-C. Hung, Y.-J. Chen, and Y.-J. Wang, “The internalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots impair the chondrogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research B Applied Biomaterials, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 95–101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. S.-C. Hsieh, F.-F. Wang, C.-S. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, S.-C. Hung, and Y.-J. Wang, “The inhibition of osteogenesis with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by CdSe/ZnS quantum dot labels,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1656–1664, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, “In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5599, pp. 1759–1762, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. G. Wang, G. Zeng, C. Wang et al., “Biocompatibility of quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS ) in human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro,” Biomedical Papers, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 227–233, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  137. B. S. Shah and J. J. Mao, “Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells with bioconjugated quantum dots,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 680, pp. 61–75, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. G. Chen, F. Tian, C. Li et al., “In vivo real-time visualization of mesenchymal stem cells tropism for cutaneous regeneration using NIR-II fluorescence imaging,” Biomaterials, vol. 53, pp. 265–273, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  139. L. Tang and J. Cheng, “Nonporous silica nanoparticles for nanomedicine application,” Nano Today, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 290–312, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. F. Tang, L. Li, and D. Chen, “Mesoporous silica nanoparticles: synthesis, biocompatibility and drug delivery,” Advanced Materials, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1504–1534, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. I. I. Slowing, J. L. Vivero-Escoto, C.-W. Wu, and V. S.-Y. Lin, “Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as controlled release drug delivery and gene transfection carriers,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1278–1288, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. M. Benezra, O. Penate-Medina, P. B. Zanzonico et al., “Multimodal silica nanoparticles are effective cancer-targeted probes in a model of human melanoma,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 2768–2780, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. L. A. Delouise, “Applications of nanotechnology in dermatology,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 964–975, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. P. Scodeller, P. N. Catalano, N. Salguero, H. Duran, A. Wolosiuk, and G. J. A. A. Soler-Illia, “Hyaluronan degrading silica nanoparticles for skin cancer therapy,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 20, pp. 9690–9698, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. M. R. Prausnitz, P. M. Elias, T. J. Franz et al., “Skin barrier and transdermal drug delivery,” in Dermatology, pp. 2065–2073, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  146. A. Baeza, M. Colilla, and M. Vallet-Regí, “Advances in mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted stimuli-responsive drug delivery,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 319–337, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. D. J. Bharali, I. Klejbor, E. K. Stachowiak et al., “Organically modified silica nanoparticles: a nonviral vector for in vivo gene delivery and expression in the brain,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 32, pp. 11539–11544, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. M. M. De Villiers, P. Aramwit, and G. S. Kwon, Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, Science & Business Media, 2008.
  149. A. Burns, H. Ow, and U. Wiesner, “Fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles: towards ‘lab on a particle’ architectures for nanobiotechnology,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1028–1042, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. H. Yamauchi, T. Ishikawa, and S. Kondo, “Surface characterization of ultramicro spherical particles of silica prepared by w/o microemulsion method,” Colloids and Surfaces, vol. 37, pp. 71–80, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. K. Osseo-Asare and F. J. Arriagada, “Preparation of SiO2 nanoparticles in a non-ionic reverse micellar system,” Colloids and Surfaces, vol. 50, pp. 321–339, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. R. Lindberg, J. Sjöblom, and G. Sundholm, “Preparation of silica particles utilizing the sol-gel and the emulsion-gel processes,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. L. Accomasso, E. C. Rocchietti, S. Raimondo et al., “Fluorescent silica nanoparticles improve optical imaging of stem cells allowing direct discrimination between live and early-stage apoptotic cells,” Small, vol. 8, no. 20, pp. 3192–3200, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. A. Lesniak, F. Fenaroli, M. P. Monopoli, C. Åberg, K. A. Dawson, and A. Salvati, “Effects of the presence or absence of a protein corona on silica nanoparticle uptake and impact on cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 5845–5857, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. F. Catalano, L. Accomasso, G. Alberto et al., “Factors ruling the uptake of silica nanoparticles by mesenchymal stem cells: agglomeration versus dispersions, absence versus presence of serum proteins,” Small, vol. 11, no. 24, pp. 2919–2928, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. D.-M. Huang, Y. Hung, B.-S. Ko et al., “Highly efficient cellular labeling of mesoporous nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells: implication for stem cell tracking,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 2014–2016, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. T.-H. Chung, S.-H. Wu, M. Yao et al., “The effect of surface charge on the uptake and biological function of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in 3T3-L1 cells and human mesenchymal stem cells,” Biomaterials, vol. 28, no. 19, pp. 2959–2966, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. D.-M. Huang, T.-H. Chung, Y. Hung et al., “Internalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles induces transient but not sufficient osteogenic signals in human mesenchymal stem cells,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 231, no. 2, pp. 208–215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. S. Wei, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, L. Sun, H. Lin, and Z. Guo, “Multifunctional composite core-shell nanoparticles,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 4474–4502, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. H.-M. Liu, S.-H. Wu, C.-W. Lu et al., “Mesoporous silica nanoparticles improve magnetic labeling efficiency in human stem cells,” Small, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 619–626, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Tang et al., “High MRI performance fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for tracking neural progenitor cells in an ischemic mouse model,” Nanoscale, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 4506–4516, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. A. Liberman, H. P. Martinez, C. N. Ta et al., “Hollow silica and silica-boron nano/microparticles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound to detect small tumors,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 20, pp. 5124–5129, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nano-amplifiers,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 348–354, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. J. P. Rao and K. E. Geckeler, “Polymer nanoparticles: preparation techniques and size-control parameters,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 887–913, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. E. Abbasi, S. F. Aval, A. Akbarzadeh et al., “Dendrimers: synthesis, applications, and properties,” Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. H. N. Patel and P. M. Patel, “Dendrimer applications—a review,” International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 454–463, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. R. M. Kannan, E. Nance, S. Kannan, and D. A. Tomalia, “Emerging concepts in dendrimer-based nanomedicine: from design principles to clinical applications,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 276, no. 6, pp. 579–617, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. M. Jędrych, K. Borowska, R. Galus, and B. Jodłowska-Jędrych, “The evaluation of the biomedical effectiveness of poly(amido)amine dendrimers generation 4.0 as a drug and as drug carriers: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 462, no. 1-2, pp. 38–43, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. D. Bennet and S. Kim, “Polymer nanoparticles for smart drug delivery,” in Application of Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, A. D. Sezer, Ed., chapter 8, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. S. B. Brijmohan, S. Swier, R. A. Weiss, and M. T. Shaw, “Synthesis and characterization of cross-linked sulfonated polystyrene nanoparticles,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 44, no. 21, pp. 8039–8045, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. X. Jiang, J. Dausend, M. Hafner et al., “Specific effects of surface amines on polystyrene nanoparticles in their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 748–753, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. M. C. Baier, J. Huber, and S. Mecking, “Fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles by polymerization in miniemulsion,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 40, pp. 14267–14273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. L. Fang, Y. Li, R. Wang, C. Xu, and S. Li, “Synthesis and photophysical properties of poly(aryleneethynylene)s bearing dialkylsilyl side substituents,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1092–1097, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. R. Wang, C. Zhang, W. Wang, and T. Liu, “Preparation, morphology, and biolabeling of fluorescent nanoparticles based on conjugated polymers by emulsion polymerization,” Journal of Polymer Science A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 21, pp. 4867–4874, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. Y. Liu, R. C. Mills, J. M. Boncella, and K. S. Schanze, “Fluorescent polyacetylene thin film sensor for nitroaromatics,” Langmuir, vol. 17, no. 24, pp. 7452–7455, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. F. Wang, W. B. Tan, Y. Zhang, X. Fan, and M. Wang, “Luminescent nanomaterials for biological labelling,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 1, p. R1, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. S. Huang, S. Liu, K. Wang et al., “Highly fluorescent and bioresorbable polymeric nanoparticles with enhanced photostability for cell imaging,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 889–895, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. R. Francis, N. Joy, E. P. Aparna, and R. Vijayan, “Polymer grafted inorganic nanoparticles, preparation, properties, and applications: a review,” Polymer Reviews, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 268–347, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. Y.-X. J. Wang, S. M. Hussain, and G. P. Krestin, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents: physicochemical characteristics and applications in MR imaging,” European Radiology, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2319–2331, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. C. Xu, L. Mu, I. Roes et al., “Nanoparticle-based monitoring of cell therapy,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, no. 49, Article ID 494001, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  182. A. K. Gupta and M. Gupta, “Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications,” Biomaterials, vol. 26, no. 18, pp. 3995–4021, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. L.-S. Wang, M.-C. Chuang, and J.-A. A. Ho, “Nanotheranostics—a review of recent publications,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 4679–4695, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. J. Øvrevik, R. B. Hetland, R. P. Schins, T. Myran, and P. E. Schwarze, “Iron release and ROS generation from mineral particles are not related to cytokine release or apoptosis in exposed A549 cells,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. P. L. Apopa, Y. Qian, R. Shao et al., “Iron oxide nanoparticles induce human microvascular endothelial cell permeability through reactive oxygen species production and microtubule remodeling,” Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 6, no. 1, article 1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. N. Lee and T. Hyeon, “Designed synthesis of uniformly sized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 2575–2589, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. Y.-X. J. Wang, “Superparamagnetic iron oxide based MRI contrast agents: current status of clinical application,” Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  188. M. Zhao, M. F. Kircher, L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, “Differential conjugation of tat peptide to superparamagnetic nanoparticles and its effect on cellular uptake,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 840–844, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. A. S. Arbab, G. T. Yocum, L. B. Wilson et al., “Comparison of transfection agents in forming complexes with ferumoxides, cell labeling efficiency, and cellular viability,” Molecular Imaging, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 24–32, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. T. Arai, T. Kofidis, J. W. M. Bulte et al., “Dual in vivo magnetic resonance evaluation of magnetically labeled mouse embryonic stem cells and cardiac function at 1.5 t,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 203–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. A. Stroh, C. Faber, T. Neuberger et al., “In vivo detection limits of magnetically labeled embryonic stem cells in the rat brain using high-field (17.6 T) magnetic resonance imaging,” NeuroImage, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 635–645, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. E. Syková and P. Jendelová, “Magnetic resonance tracking of implanted adult and embryonic stem cells in injured brain and spinal cord,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1049, no. 1, pp. 146–160, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. J.-K. Hsiao, M.-F. Tai, H.-H. Chu et al., “Magnetic nanoparticle labeling of mesenchymal stem cells without transfection agent: cellular behavior and capability of detection with clinical 1.5 T magnetic resonance at the single cell level,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 717–724, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. C.-W. Lu, Y. Hung, J.-K. Hsiao et al., “Bifunctional magnetic silica nanoparticles for highly efficient human stem cell labeling,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 149–154, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. J. W. M. Bulte, T. Douglas, B. Witwer et al., “Magnetodendrimers allow endosomal magnetic labeling and in vivo tracking of stem cells,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1141–1147, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. R. Guzman, N. Uchida, T. M. Bliss et al., “Long-term monitoring of transplanted human neural stem cells in developmental and pathological contexts with MRI,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 24, pp. 10211–10216, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmström et al., “Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 8, article 1911, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. G. J.-R. Delcroix, M. Jacquart, L. Lemaire et al., “Mesenchymal and neural stem cells labeled with HEDP-coated SPIO nanoparticles: in vitro characterization and migration potential in rat brain,” Brain Research, vol. 1255, pp. 18–31, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. A. Heymer, D. Haddad, M. Weber et al., “Iron oxide labelling of human mesenchymal stem cells in collagen hydrogels for articular cartilage repair,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1473–1483, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. X.-H. Jing, L. Yang, X.-J. Duan et al., “In vivo MR imaging tracking of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle labeled, engineered, autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells following intra-articular injection,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 432–438, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. L. Wang, J. Deng, J. Wang et al., “Superparamagnetic iron oxide does not affect the viability and function of adipose-derived stem cells, and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging identifies viable cells,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 108–119, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. J. W. M. Bulte, D. L. Kraitchman, A. M. Mackay et al., “Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is inhibited after magnetic labeling with ferumoxides,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 10, pp. 3410–3413, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. A. S. Arbab, L. B. Wilson, P. Ashari, E. K. Jordan, B. K. Lewis, and J. A. Frank, “A model of lysosomal metabolism of dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles: implications for cellular magnetic resonance imaging,” NMR in Biomedicine, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 383–389, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. Y. S. Song and J. H. Ku, “Monitoring transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells in rat and rabbit bladders using molecular magnetic resonance imaging,” Neurourology and Urodynamics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 584–593, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. K.-W. Au, S.-Y. Liao, Y.-K. Lee et al., “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 379, no. 4, pp. 898–903, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. M. Ramos-Gómez, E. G. Seiz, and A. Martínez-Serrano, “Optimization of the magnetic labeling of human neural stem cells and MRI visualization in the hemiparkinsonian rat brain,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 13, no. 20, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  207. P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 14, pp. 7238–7248, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. L. Tong, Q. Wei, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, “Gold nanorods as contrast agents for biological imaging: optical properties, surface conjugation and photothermal effects,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. L. M. Ricles, S. Y. Nam, K. Sokolov, S. Y. Emelianov, and L. J. Suggs, “Function of mesenchymal stem cells following loading of gold nanotracers,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, pp. 407–416, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “In vivo ultrasound and photoacoustic monitoring of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with gold nanotracers,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e37267, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. J. V. Jokerst, M. Thangaraj, P. J. Kempen, R. Sinclair, and S. S. Gambhir, “Photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in living mice via silica-coated gold nanorods,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 5920–5930, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. S. Y. Nam, E. Chung, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging to noninvasively assess burn injury and selectively monitor a regenerative tissue-engineered construct,” Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 557–566, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  213. M. Edmundson, N. T. K. Thanh, and B. Song, “Nanoparticles based stem cell tracking in regenerative medicine,” Theranostics, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 573–582, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. J. R. Slotkin, L. Chakrabarti, N. D. Hai et al., “In vivo quantum dot labeling of mammalian stem and progenitor cells,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 236, no. 12, pp. 3393–3401, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. A. B. Rosen, D. J. Kelly, A. J. T. Schuldt et al., “Finding fluorescent needles in the cardiac haystack: tracking human mesenchymal stem cells labeled with quantum dots for quantitative in vivo three-dimensional fluorescence analysis,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 2128–2138, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. J. M. Barnett, J. S. Penn, and A. Jayagopal, “Imaging of endothelial progenitor cell subpopulations in angiogenesis using quantum dot nanocrystals,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 1026, pp. 45–56, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: second window for in vivo imaging,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 710–711, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. J. Tang, J. Wang, L. Guo et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells modified with stromal cell-derived factor 1α improve cardiac remodeling via paracrine activation of hepatocyte growth factor in a rat model of myocardial infarction,” Molecules and Cells, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 9–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. T. Schroeder, “Imaging stem-cell-driven regeneration in mammals,” Nature, vol. 453, no. 7193, pp. 345–351, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. S. Sinha and U. Sinha, “Recent advances in breast MRI and MRS,” NMR in Biomedicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. N. K. Logothetis, “What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI,” Nature, vol. 453, no. 7197, pp. 869–878, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. P. Reimer and T. Balzer, “Ferucarbotran (Resovist): a new clinically approved RES-specific contrast agent for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver: properties, clinical development, and applications,” European Radiology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1266–1276, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. C.-H. Lai, T.-C. Yen, and K.-K. Ng, “Molecular imaging in the management of cervical cancer,” Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 412–420, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. H. B. Na, I. C. Song, and T. Hyeon, “Inorganic nanoparticles for MRI contrast agents,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 2133–2148, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. M. Lewin, N. Carlesso, C.-H. Tung et al., “Tat peptide-derivatized magnetic nanoparticles allow in vivo tracking and recovery of progenitor cells,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 410–414, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. L. Li, W. Jiang, K. Luo et al., “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents for non-invasive stem cell labeling and tracking,” Theranostics, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 595–615, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. A. E. Merbach and É. Tóth, The Chemistry of Contrast Agents in Medical Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 46, Wiley, 2001.
  228. J. S. Weinstein, C. G. Varallyay, E. Dosa et al., “Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and potential therapeutic applications in neurooncology and central nervous system inflammatory pathologies, a review,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 15–35, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. J. W. M. Bulte, I. D. Duncan, and J. A. Frank, “In vivo magnetic resonance tracking of magnetically labeled cells after transplantation,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 899–907, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  230. S.-L. Hu, P.-G. Lu, L.-J. Zhang et al., “In vivo magnetic resonance imaging tracking of SPIO-labeled human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 1005–1012, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. Y. Amsalem, Y. Mardor, M. S. Feinberg et al., “Iron-oxide labeling and outcome of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells in the infarcted myocardium,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. I38–I45, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. C. Chapon, J. S. Jackson, E. O. Aboagye, A. H. Herlihy, W. A. Jones, and K. K. Bhakoo, “An in vivo multimodal imaging study using MRI and pet of stem cell transplantation after myocardial infarction in rats,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. A. Blocki, S. Beyer, J. Dewavrin et al., “Microcapsules engineered to support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) survival and proliferation enable long-term retention of MSCs in infarcted myocardium,” Biomaterials, vol. 53, pp. 12–24, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  234. T. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, W. Shim, S. Y. Kim, T. J. Park, and J. Y. Jung, “Tracking of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells labeled with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle in liver cirrhosis rat model with 3-T MRI,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1004–1013, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. S. C. Berman, C. Galpoththawela, A. A. Gilad, J. W. M. Bulte, and P. Walczak, “Long-term MR cell tracking of neural stem cells grafted in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient mice reveals distinct differences in contrast between live and dead cells,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 564–574, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. J. Terrovitis, M. Stuber, A. Youssef et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging overestimates ferumoxide-labeled stem cell survival after transplantation in the heart,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 12, pp. 1555–1562, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  237. M. Janowski, P. Walczak, T. Kropiwnicki et al., “Long-term MRI cell tracking after intraventricular delivery in a patient with global cerebral ischemia and prospects for magnetic navigation of stem cells within the CSF,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 2, Article ID e97631, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  238. U. Himmelreich, R. Weber, P. Ramos-Cabrer et al., “Improved stem cell MR detectability in animal models by modification of the inhalation gas,” Molecular Imaging, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 104–109, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  239. U. Himmelreich and T. Dresselaers, “Cell labeling and tracking for experimental models using magnetic resonance imaging,” Methods, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 112–124, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. J. Ruiz-Cabello, P. Walczak, D. A. Kedziorek et al., “In vivo ‘hot spot’ MR imaging of neural stem cells using fluorinated nanoparticles,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1506–1511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  241. E. T. Ahrens, B. M. Helfer, C. F. O'Hanlon, and C. Schirda, “Clinical cell therapy imaging using a perfluorocarbon tracer and fluorine-19 MRI,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 1696–1701, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. D. K. Kadayakkara, K. Damodaran, T. K. Hitchens, J. W. M. Bulte, and E. T. Ahrens, “19F spin-lattice relaxation of perfluoropolyethers: dependence on temperature and magnetic field strength (7.0-14.1 T),” Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol. 242, pp. 18–22, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. J. Ruiz-Cabello, B. P. Barnett, P. A. Bottomley, and J. W. M. Bulte, “Fluorine (19F) MRS and MRI in biomedicine,” NMR in Biomedicine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 114–129, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. P. Boehm-Sturm, L. Mengler, S. Wecker, M. Hoehn, and T. Kallur, “In vivo tracking of human neural stem cells with 19F magnetic resonance imaging,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 12, Article ID e29040, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 77, no. 4, Article ID 041101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. A. De La Zerda, C. Zavaleta, S. Keren et al., “Carbon nanotubes as photoacoustic molecular imaging agents in living mice,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 557–562, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  247. A. D. L. Zerda, Z. Liu, S. Bodapati et al., “Ultrahigh sensitivity carbon nanotube agents for photoacoustic molecular imaging in living mice,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2168–2172, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. L. M. Ricles, S. Y. Nam, E. A. Treviño, S. Y. Emelianov, and L. J. Suggs, “A dual gold nanoparticle system for mesenchymal stem cell tracking,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 2, no. 46, pp. 8220–8230, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus