Osteogenic differentiation results of G-MSCs under inflammatory environment. (a) The mRNA expression of osteogenic genes (RUNX2, ALP, Col-I, and OPN) in the three groups were measured by real-time PCR at day 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Expression level was normalized to GAPDH. Significant differences between groups are marked with an asterisk (; Dunn’s test). (b) Alizarin red staining results of G-MSCs induced by osteogenic inductive medium (M1), inflammatory medium (M2), and anti-inflammatory treatment medium (M3) after 14 days. GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Runx2: runt-related transcription factor 2; ALP: alkaline phosphatase.