Stem Cells International / 2017 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Regulation of Stem Cell Properties of Müller Glia by JAK/STAT and MAPK Signaling in the Mammalian Retina

Figure 1

Retinal structure and cellular organization. (a) Diagram shows organization of retinal neurons and Müller glia. The cell bodies of rod (purple) and cone (red) photoreceptors are in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and the photoreceptor outer segments (OS) contain the photopigments that absorb light. Rod and cone bipolar (blue), horizontal (yellow), and amacrine (white) cells are in the inner nuclear layer (INL), with retinal ganglion cells (green) located in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Between the nuclear layers are the outer and inner plexiform layers (OPL, IPL) containing the synaptic terminals. Müller glia (black) have cell bodies located in the INL and extend processes throughout the retina. (ILM, OLM). (b, c, d) Photomicrographs of adult mouse retina. (b, c) Müller glia are immunostained for glutamine synthetase (magenta) revealing their radial processes that extend the full thickness of the retina. The Müller glial endfeet form the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and outer limiting membrane (OLM) (arrows). (d) Photomicrograph showing histology of adult mouse retina stained with toluidine blue, showing retinal lamina and overlaid with a diagram of a Müller glial cell. Arrows indicate glial endfeet at ILM and OLM. Scale bar = 50 microns in (b), (c), (d).