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Stem Cells International
Volume 2017, Article ID 2638305, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2638305
Review Article

The Holy Grail of Orthopedic Surgery: Mesenchymal Stem Cells—Their Current Uses and Potential Applications

1Tissue Engineering, Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Unit, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación “Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra”, Calzada México Xochimilco, No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico City, Mexico
2School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Anáhuac University, Av. Universidad Anáhuac 46, Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, MEX, Mexico
3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, American British Cowdray Medical Center, Av. Carlos Graef Fernández, No. 154, Col. Santa Fe, Cuajimalpa, 05300 Mexico City, Mexico
4Orthopedic Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Division, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación “Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra”, Calzada México Xochimilco, No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico City, Mexico
5Department of Transplantation, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, Av. Vasco de Quiroga, No. 15, Tlalpan, Belisario Domínguez Sección XVI, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico
6Direction of Research, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación “Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra”, Calzada México Xochimilco, No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico City, Mexico
7General Direction, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación “Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra”, Calzada México Xochimilco, No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico City, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Clemente Ibarra; moc.liamg@rni.gnireenigne.eussit

Received 17 January 2017; Accepted 16 April 2017; Published 18 June 2017

Academic Editor: Ann Steele

Copyright © 2017 Roberto Berebichez-Fridman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Only select tissues and organs are able to spontaneously regenerate after disease or trauma, and this regenerative capacity diminishes over time. Human stem cell research explores therapeutic regenerative approaches to treat various conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from adult stem cells; they are multipotent and exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. They can differentiate into multiple cell types of the mesenchyme, for example, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, tenocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and sarcomere muscular cells. MSCs are easily obtained and can be cultivated and expanded in vitro; thus, they represent a promising and encouraging treatment approach in orthopedic surgery. Here, we review the application of MSCs to various orthopedic conditions, namely, orthopedic trauma; muscle injury; articular cartilage defects and osteoarthritis; meniscal injuries; bone disease; nerve, tendon, and ligament injuries; spinal cord injuries; intervertebral disc problems; pediatrics; and rotator cuff repair. The use of MSCs in orthopedics may transition the practice in the field from predominately surgical replacement and reconstruction to bioregeneration and prevention. However, additional research is necessary to explore the safety and effectiveness of MSC treatment in orthopedics, as well as applications in other medical specialties.